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Table 1 Murine cancer vaccine studies that utilized MDSC inhibitors

From: Myeloid derived suppressor cells – a new therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer

MDSC Inhibition Strategy Tumor model Vaccine Effect of MDSC Modulation
ATRA [14] (a) C3 fibrosarcoma in C57BL/6 mice (a) H-2Db-restricted epitope of the HPV-16 E7 (a) Decreased tumor size by ~3 fold at 35 days; enhanced CD8+ response
  (b) 3-methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma containing mutant p53 gene in BALB/c mice (b) Wild type p53 DC vaccine (b) Decreased tumor size by ~5 fold; enhanced CD8+ responses
Gemcitabine [15] Pancreas adenocarcinoma (Panc02) expressing murine survivin in C57BL/6 mice Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing murine survivin protein 50% survival vs. 0% in control mice at 50 days; enhanced CD8+ responses
ATRA + anti-CD25 antibody [16] Tumor bearing IL-1RI competent or IL-1RI deficient mice cDNA IL-1α attenuated S. typhimurium and/or IL-1 competent or IL-1 deficient fibrosarcoma cell lysates Decreased MDSC and Treg levels; significantly enhanced survival of IL-1 RI competent mice
Nitroaspirin derivative (NCX-4016) [17] (a) CT26 colon carcinoma in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice Plasmid DNA vaccine encoding extracellular and trans-membrane domains of p185 peptide (a) 20% cure rate at 120 days
  (b) Her-2/neu + (p185) N2C breast carcinoma in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice   (b) 56% cure rate at 120 days
CDDO-Me (Triterpenoid) [18] EL-4 thymoma in C57BL/6 DC transduced with murine survivin Decreased tumor size by 2 fold; enhanced antigen specific immune response
IL-13-PE (cytotoxin composed of IL-13 and Pseudomonas exotoxin) [19] (a) 4 T1 breast carcinoma in BALB/c mice DNA vaccine encoding α2 chain of IL-13R Decreased tumor size by 5 fold; decreased MDSC and Treg levels; enhanced T cell responses; enhanced survival by 35 days.
  (b) MCA304 sarcoma in C57BL/6 mice   
Sunitinib [20] MO5 (B16.OVA: H-2b) melanoma on C57BL/6 mice IL-12 transfected DC pulsed with OVA I and II peptides. Loss of tumor associated MDSC and Tregs; enhanced CD8+ T cell responses
Gemcitabine [21] Her-2/neu + SK-BR-3 breast carcinoma or mHER2/CT26 (colon carcinoma transfected with murine Her-2/neu) in BALB/c mice (a) AdhHM (a) No anti-tumor effect of AdhHM alone
   (b) AdhHM + anti- GITR antibody (b) Decreased tumor size by >5 fold; (p < 0.005); CD8+ cell dependent rejection of syngeneic tumor cells
   (c) AdhHM + α galactosylceramide loaded DCs (c) Decreased tumor size by >5 fold
Cisplatin [22] TC-1 lung carcinoma expressing E7 protein in C57BL/6 mice E7 DNA vaccine Enhanced tumor lysis mediated by E7 specific CD8+ cells; reduced tumor volume
Zoledronic Acid [23] Transgenic Balb T-Neu mice (express activated rat c-erbB-2/neu transgene) Plasmid DNA encoding portion of the rat p185/Her-2 gene Delayed tumor onset and reduced in tumor size
  1. Abbreviations: ATRA – All-Trans Retinoic Acid, AdhHM - Adenoviral vector expressing xenogenic human Her-2/neu, DC – Dendritic Cell, GITR - Glucocorticoid Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Family- Related Receptor.