
PHM

PHCRM

NPHM

NPHCRM


Interim sample size

520

540

480

500

Number of events

256

256

256

256

P E T_{
a
} (superiority)

0.25

0.25

0.06

0.06

PET_{
a
} (futility)

0.01

0.01

0.08

0.08

 Under the same design assumption, we incorporated an interim analysis at the information fraction of 50%. Based on the same accrual rate of 20 patients per month, the total number of randomized patients for the four models ranged from 480 to 540 when 256 events were reached. When a superiority interim analysis using O’BrienFleming boundaries was built into the study design, the probability of early termination when the agent was active (PET_{
a
}), i.e., true positive rate, at the interim analysis under exponential decay was 0.25. The PET_{
a
} reduced to 0.06 when the delayed clinical effect of 3 months was present. If a futility interim analysis was incorporated, the PET_{
a
} (false negative rate) increased from 0.01 to 0.08.