Suppressive phenotype and function of BM-MDSCs are abolished after 24 h culture with VSSP. (A) BM precursors were cultured with 40 ng/mL of GM-CSF for four days, in the presence or absence of VSSP. The capacity of these MDSCs (10% of the effector splenocytes) to inhibit Con A-induced proliferation of T cells was next evaluated. (B-C) BM-MDSCs differentiated in vitro only with GM-CSF were treated with VSSP, polyI:C or LPS for an additional 24 h. Afterward, the suppressive activity (B) and the phenotype within the CD11b+Gr1+ gate (C) were studied as mentioned above. Statistical differences in bar graphs were detected with ANOVA and Tukey’s tests. Two repetitions of this experiment were done with similar outcome.