Bladder cancer tissues spontaneously express high levels of MDSC/T
- attracting chemokines CCL22 and CXCL8, but only marginal levels of CTL- attractants, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10. A. Spontaneous chemokine mRNA expression by bladder tumors (N = 20 different patients) by real-time PCR analysis (Taqman). B. Spontaneous mRNA expression analysis for markers of immune filtrate in bladder tumors (N = 20 different patients) by real-time PCR analysis (Taqman). The levels of chemokine and immune filtrate markers were normalized to HPRT1 mRNA (housekeeping gene). C. Confocal analysis for CXCL8 (Red), CXCL10 (Green) protein expression in 2 representative bladder tumors. Nuclei were stained with Sytox orange (Blue) and specificity controls (secondary antibody only) are shown in insets.