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Table 2 Completed immunotherapy clinical trials

From: From bench to bedside a comprehensive review of pancreatic cancer immunotherapy

Treatment type Target N Additional therapy Cancer stage Immunologic response Clinical outcome Ref
Peptide vaccines CEA 23 None Resected or Metastatic ↑ IFN-γ T cell response by ELISPOT with increasing vaccine dose 37 % survival at 32 months [77]
CEA + MUC1 20 None Metastatic NR mOS of 7.3 ms [78]
Gastrin 17 154 None Metastatic 74 % + ELISA ↑OS by 54 % vs placebo (p = 0.03) [51]
Gastrin 17 383 None Metastatic Correlation between anti-gastrin17 titers and OS No benefit [53]
Gastrin 17 30 None Metastatic 67 % + ELISA ↑OS (4 to 7.2 ms if + IR (p < 0.01) [52]
GVAX + Mesothelin 90 Cyclophosphamide Metastatic NR ↑OS (4 to 6.2 ms) [63]
Hedgehog 59 Gemcitabine Metastatic NR mOS 10 ms [79]
KRAS 23 None Resected 85 % + DTH 10 year OS of 20 % [56]
KRAS 48 GM-CSF Resected(10) and Metastatic (38) 58 % + DTH ↑OS (2 to 5.4 ms if + IR (p = 0.0002) [54]
KRAS 24 GM-CSF Resected 11 % + DTH mOS 20.3 ms [55]
KRAS 39 Gemcitabine Resected 47 % + ELISpot ↑OS by 21.7 wks if + IR (p < 0.01) [57]
MUC1 16 SB-AS adjuvant Resected 31 % + DHT No benefit [42]
MUC1 6 Incomplete Freund's Metastatic 17 % + ELISA No benefit [41]
Telomerase 1062 Gemcitabine Metastatic NR No benefit [47]
Telomerase 520 Gemcitabine Metastatic NR No benefit [48]
Telomerase 48 GM-CSF Metastatic 63 % + DHT mOS of 4.3 ms if + IR (p < 0.01) [50]
Telomerase 178 Gemcitabine Metastatic NR No benefit [49]
Trop-2 7 None Metastatic NR No benefit [80]
VEGF 607 Erlotinib + Gemcitabine Metastatic NR No benefit [44]
VEGF 535 Gemcitabine Unresectable NR No benefit alone [46]
VEGF 150 Gemcitabine Unresectable NR No benefit [46]
Wilm's Tumor gene-1 32 Gemcitabine Unresectable 58 % + DTH ↑mOS by 7 ms if DHT + (p < 0.01) [81]
Autologous: DC MUC-1 49 Gemcitabine Metastatic ↓65 % T-regs 2 CR, 5 PR ,10 SD [59]
MUC1 17 None Resected and Unresectable NR mOS of 9 ms [82]
MUC-1 20 none Metastatic Correlation between CD38+ cells and OS 1 pt had remission of lung mets, 5 had stable disease. mOS 9.8 mos [58]
MUC-1 10 None Resected No difference 30 % OS 4 years [83]
MUC-1 2 None Metastatic ↑117 % CD8+ MUC-1 specific cells No benefit [84]
Wilm's Tumor gene-1 10 Gemcitabine Metastatic 57 % + DTH ↑OS if + DTH [85]
Allogeneic GM-CSF 60 5-FU Resected ↑ mesothelin + ELISPOT ↑OS (53 % to 76 % if + IR) [61]
GM-CSF 14 Adjuvant CRT Resected 21 % + DTH DFS of 25 ms if + R [60]
GM-CSF 30 Cyclophosphamide Metastatic ↑Mesothelin ELISPOT No benefit [62]
Adoptive cell transfer Mesothelin 6 None Metastatic NR 33 % with stable disease [65]
MUC1 28 None Resected (20) and Unresectable (8) ↑10 % effector T-cells , ↓5.7 % Tregs mOS 5 ms in unresectable,
19 % 3 year OS in resectable
[64]
MUC1 20 None Unresected ↑CD8+ T-cells mOS 9.8 ms,
1 year OS 20 %
[58]
Immune checkpoint inhibitor CD40 21 Gemcitabine Unresected (7) and Metastatic (20) N/A ↑mOS by 1.7 ms vs gemcitabine alone, 1 patient had complete resolution of hepatic metasteses [68]
CTLA-4 30 GVAX Unresectable or metastatic N/A ↑1 year OS by 20 % compared to GVAX alone [75]
CTLA-4 27 none Unresected (7) and Metastatic (20) N/A 1 patient delayed regression of hepatic metasteses [70]
PD-L1 14 none Metastatic N/A No benefit [69]
  1. ↑ increase, ↓ decrease, CR complete response, CRT chemoradiation, CTLA-4 Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein-4, DC dendritic cell, DTH delayed typed hypersensitivity, GM-CSF granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor, MDSC myeloid derived suppressor cell, mOS median overall survival, Ms months, N/A not applicable, NK natural killer cell, NR not reported, OS overall survival, PD-L1, programmed cell death ligand-1, PR partial response, R response, SD stable disease, TAM tumor associated macrophages, Wk weeks