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Fig. 3 | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

Fig. 3

From: What have we learned from immunotherapy? Report from the 3rd and 4th meetings of the Campania Society of Oncology Immunotherapy (SCITO)

Fig. 3

Mechanisms leading to PD1 ligands expression in Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin Lymphoma. Multiple mechanism are concurrently implicated in overexpression of PD1-ligands by tumor cells of Hodgkin lymphoma. 1) Amplification of 9p24 increases gene dosage for PD-L1/2 and JAK2. 2) JAK2 gene product increases transcription of the PD-L1 gene. 3) HRS cells display the constitutive activation of AP1 whivh binds to an AP-1–responsive enhancer in the PD-L1 gene. 4) The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 increases PD-L1 promoter activity, also via AP-1. 5) The network underlying tumor microenvironment formation and maintenance in Hodgkin lymphoma results in the constitutive production of cytokines known to enhance activity of the PD-L1 gene

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