Skip to main content

Table 1 Breg markers of immune suppression and tumorigenesis

From: B cell regulation of the anti-tumor response and role in carcinogenesis

Breg marker Mechanisms Phenotype(s) Cancer type(s) References
IL-10 ↓Th1/Th17; ↑Treg generation Human: HNSCC, lung, esophageal, ovarian, glioma, gastric [5, 1322, 25, 37, 38, 44, 56, 65]
CD19+CD24hiCD38hi
CD19+CD1dhiCD5+
CD19+CD24hiCD27+
CD19+CD25hi
Mouse:
CD19+CD1dhiCD5+
CD19 + CD25 + B220+
Granzyme-B ↓T cell proliferation via degradation of TCR-zeta chain Human: Breast, ovarian, cervical, colorectal, prostate [62]
CD19 + CD38 + CD1d + IgM + CD147+
IL-35 ↓Th1/Th17; ↑Treg generation Human: Pancreatic [7679]
CD19 + CD35+
Mouse:
CD19+CD1dhiCD5+
TGFβ ↑Treg generation Human: Multiple tumor types [5, 20, 44, 65]
CD19+CD24hiCD38hi
Mouse:
CD19+CD25+B220+
Stat3 ↑Treg generation; ↑angiogenesis Human: Melanoma, gastric, lung, liver, prostate [57, 7375]
CD5+
Mouse:
↑IL-10, ↑TGFβ CD19+CD25+B220+
Lymphotoxin-α/β Activation of IKKα and STAT3 Mouse: Castration-resistant prostate (mice) [93]
CD19 + LT+
PD-L1 Promote T cell anergy via interaction with PD1 Human: B cell lymphomas, prostate [2628, 69, 88]
Malignant B cells
IgA + CD138+
Mouse:
IgA + CD138+
PD-1 Promote T cell anergy Human: Hepatocellular [15]
CD19 + CD5hiCD24−/+CD27hi/+CD38dim
TNFα ↑IL-10+ Bregs, ↓CD8 + IFNγ Tcells Mouse: Squamous cell skin CA (mice) [90]
CD19 + TNFα+
OX40L ↑Th2 skewing, ↓CD8 + IFNγ Tcells Mouse: Colorectal (mice) [64]
CD19 + OX40L+
CD80, CD86 ↓T cell proliferation via interaction with CTLA-4; may also ↑T cell proliferation via interaction with CD28 Human Multiple tumor types [30, 44, 69]
CD19+CD24hiCD38hi
IL-8 Upregulation of androgen receptor and downstream MMPs Human: Bladder [22]
CD19 + IL-8+
FasL Induce T cell apoptosis via binding to Fas Human: CLL [60, 61]
Malignant B cells
CD40L Interact with CD40 on malignant cells to stimulate ↑IL-10, ↑TGFβ Human: Hepatocellular [19]
CD19+CD24hiCD38hi
CD5 Activation of Stat3 via binding to IL-6 Human: Lung, prostate [57]
CD19+CD5+IL-10+
BTK Repolarization of macrophages toward M2-type Mouse: Pancreatic (mice) [82]
CD19 + BTK+