|Mode of action(s)||Types of response||Pros||Cons|
|IFA and Montanide formulations||Depot||Ab, Th1, Th2||Widely used for vaccines when antibody production is desired .||May not suitable for therapeutic vaccine when cellular response is desired as extended depot will attract CTL to vaccine sites .|
|Aluminum||Depot, inflammasome activation||Ab, Th2||Safety characters are well defined as it is the most widely used adjuvant .||Needs to be combined with other adjuvants to induce CTL response in therapeutic vaccines.|
|Micro/nano particles||Varies, depending on particlenature: increase Ag half-life (via encapsulation, sustained release) delivery Ag to target cells/organs, cellular and Inflammation induction (see text for detail)||Not well defined but size of articles may contribute to types of response: size of 40–50 nm induces stronger T cell response than 20nm or 2000 nm particles 4.||Reduce Ag dose, cellular and biological characters are well defined, versatile to be combined with other adjuvants .||
Rapid clearance in blood and accumulation in filtering organs such as liver and spleen .|
Need to be combined with immunopotentiators.