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Table l Examples of class I adjuvants (delivery systems)

From: Adjuvants for peptide-based cancer vaccines

  Mode of action(s) Types of response Pros Cons
IFA and Montanide formulations Depot Ab, Th1, Th2 Widely used for vaccines when antibody production is desired [123]. May not suitable for therapeutic vaccine when cellular response is desired as extended depot will attract CTL to vaccine sites [10].
Aluminum Depot, inflammasome activation Ab, Th2 Safety characters are well defined as it is the most widely used adjuvant [124]. Needs to be combined with other adjuvants to induce CTL response in therapeutic vaccines.
Micro/nano particles Varies, depending on particlenature: increase Ag half-life (via encapsulation, sustained release) delivery Ag to target cells/organs, cellular and Inflammation induction (see text for detail) Not well defined but size of articles may contribute to types of response: size of 40–50 nm induces stronger T cell response than 20nm or 2000 nm particles 4. Reduce Ag dose, cellular and biological characters are well defined, versatile to be combined with other adjuvants [121]. Rapid clearance in blood and accumulation in filtering organs such as liver and spleen [24].
Need to be combined with immunopotentiators.