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Table 2 Examples of class 2 adjuvants (immunopotentiators)

From: Adjuvants for peptide-based cancer vaccines

  Receptor Target cells Stage of development (not comprehensive) in cancer vaccine
“stepping on the gas”
Pam3CSK4 TLR2 DC, M$, lymphocytes Preclinical
Poly-ICLC TLR3 cDC, M$, epithelial cells Several clinical trials for different cancers.
MPLA TLR4 cDC, M$, epithelial cells, fibroblasts Clinical trial phase 2
Imiquimod TLR7/8 pDC, B cells, M$, monocytes Clinically approved for treating basal cell carcinoma. Multiple clinical trials in combination with vaccine for different cancers.
CpG TLR9 pDc, B cells Multiple clinical trials
IL-2 IL-2Ra/p/y T, B and NK cells Clinically approved for treating renal carcinoma and melanoma. Multiple clinical trials in combination with vaccine for different cancers.
GM-CSF GM-CSFR many Multiple clinical trials in combination with vaccine and checkpoint blockades for different cancers.
IFNs IFNR many Multiple clinical trials
CDNs STING many Preclinical
“releasing the brake”
a-PD1 Ab PD-1 T, B and NK cells Clinically approved for different cancers.
a-CTLA4 Ab CTLA-4 T cells Clinically approved for melanoma, under multiple clinical trials for different cancers.