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Table 2 Common Canine Cancers with Key Demographic Features

From: Canine cancer immunotherapy studies: linking mouse and human

Cancer Incidence Age of Onset (years) Location Breeds at Elevated Riska
Gliomas 2–3X more common in dogs than people Variable, majority > 6 Intracranial Boxers, bulldogs, and terriers
Lymphoma ~250,000 new cases per year (2/3 B cell lymphoma) 7–10 Multicentric/external lymph nodes Golden Retriever, Boxers, Bullmastiffs, Basset Hounds, Saint Bernards, Scottish Terriers, Airedales, Bulldogs
Mammary Carcinoma Uncommon in spayed female dogs, 10–15% of unspayed females 10–11 Breast tissue Poodles, Dachshunds, and Spaniels
Melanoma 5–10% of dog cancer deaths ≥10 Mouth, toenail bed, and skin Terriers, Retrievers, Schnauzers, and Chow Chows
Osteosarcoma 50,000–75,000 cases per year (~75X more common in dogs) Bimodal, highest peak at age 7–10 Axial and appendicular skeleton Labradors, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherds, Dobermans, Weimeraners, Boxers, Great Danes, Rottweilers, Irish Wolfhounds
Soft Tissue Sarcoma (e.g. Fibrosarcoma, Myxosarcoma, Hemangiosarcoma) ~10X more common in dogs than humans All ages Soft tissues Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, German Shepherd, Bernese Mountain Dog
  1. aData on breed predisposition of specific cancers are potentially subject to reporting bias given differences in breed popularity and differences in how owners may seek veterinary care