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Table 3 Effect of avelumab on classic and PD-L1+ classic immune cell subsets

From: Analyses of the peripheral immunome following multiple administrations of avelumab, a human IgG1 anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody

  Pre vs 1 cycle Pre vs 9 cycles
Subset Increase Minimal change Decrease P-value Increase Minimal change Decrease P-value
A. Classic subsets
 CD4 0 (0%) 18 (95%) 1 (5%) 0.0230 (↑^, 0.2070) 0 (0%) 12 (75%) 4 (25%) 0.0063 (↓^, 0.0567)
 CD8 1 (5%) 16 (84%) 2 (11%) 0.1447 (=) 3 (19%) 11 (68%) 2 (13%) 0.9799 (=)
 Tregs 7 (37%) 10 (53%) 2 (10%) 0.2253 (=) 2 (12%) 7 (44%) 7 (44%) 0.0934 (=)
 NK 5 (26%) 10 (53%) 4 (21%) 0.8288 (=) 0 (0%) 9 (56%) 7 (44%) 0.0182 (↓^, 0.1456)
 NK-T 2 (11%) 15 (78%) 2 (11%) 0.2413 (=) 1 (6%) 12 (75%) 3 (19%) 0.1046 (=)
 B cells 5 (26%) 12 (63%) 2 (11%) 0.7381 (=) 6 (38%) 5 (31%) 5 (31%) 0.8209 (=)
 cDC 3 (16%) 15 (79%) 1 (5%) 0.3955 (=) 6 (37%) 7 (44%) 3 (19%) 0.7436 (=)
 pDC 6 (32%) 8 (42%) 5 (26%) 0.4900 (=) 6 (38%) 9 (56%) 1 (6%) 0.0833 (=)
 MDSC 8 (42%) 8 (42%) 3 (16%) 0.1232 (=) 8 (50%) 7 (44%) 1 (6%) 0.0833 (=)
B. PD-L1+ classic subsets
 PD-L1+ CD4 5 (26%) 9 (48%) 5 (26%) 0.9843 (=) 3 (19%) 9 (56%) 4 (25%) 0.9999 (=)
 PD-L1+ CD8 4 (21%) 9 (47%) 6 (32%) 0.1688 (=) 4 (25%) 9 (56%) 3 (19%) 0.9999 (=)
 PD-L1+ Treg n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
 PD-L1+ NK 5 (26%) 6 (32%) 8 (42%) 0.4180 (=) 7 (44%) 7 (44%) 2 (12%) 0.1046 (=)
 PD-L1+ NK-T 5 (26%) 8 (42%) 6 (32%) 0.4900 (=) 6 (38%) 6 (38%) 4 (24%) 0.1439 (=)
 PD-L1+ B cells 9 (47%) 6 (32%) 4 (21%) 0.6507 (=) 6 (37%) 7 (44%) 3 (19%) 0.5282 (=)
 PD-L1+cDC 5 (26%) 8 (42%) 6 (32%) 0.3736 (=) 2 (13%) 4 (25%) 10 (62%) 0.0386 (↓*, 0.0772)
 PD-L1+ pDC 3 (16%) 2 (10%) 14 (74%) 0.0258 (↓*, 0.0774) 10 (63%) 1 (6%) 5 (31%) 0.0443 (↑, 0.1005)
 PD-L1+ MDSC 8 (42%) 6 (32%) 5 (26%) 0.6507 (=) 10 (63%) 4 (25%) 2 (12%) 0.0131 (↑, 0.1703)
  1. Classic subsets (A) and PD-L1+ classic subsets (B) were examined pre-therapy and post-1 cycle (n = 19) and 9 cycles (n = 16) of avelumab. Results are displayed as the number of patients (percentage of total patients) with an increase of more than 25%, minimal change of less than 25%, and a decrease of more than 25% compared to pre-therapy. Unadjusted p-values (= indicates no change; arrows indicate direction of change compared to pre-therapy; and Holm adjusted p-value is listed for subsets with significant unadjusted p-value) were calculated using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test. n/a = not applicable as frequency of subset <0.01% PBMC; ^ = majority of patients with minimal change; * = difference in medians pre- vs post-therapy < 0.01
  2. cDC conventional dendritic cells, MDSC myeloid derived suppressor cell, NK natural killer, pDC plasmacytoid DC, PBMC peripheral blood mononuclear cell, Tregs regulatory T cells