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Table 2 Methods used to generate PDX models

From: Workshop on challenges, insights, and future directions for mouse and humanized models in cancer immunology and immunotherapy: a report from the associated programs of the 2016 annual meeting for the Society for Immunotherapy of cancer

Dissociation method
Advantages Disadvantages
 • Unbiased representation/sampling of whole tumor (unlike sectioning)
 • Ability to challenge a large number of mice with primary tumor cells (especially when injected within a supporting/collagen matrix)
 • Dissociation capabilities and forces may bias the number and type of cells
 • The formation of mouse-human hybrid tumor (increases with number of passages)
 • Tumor microenvironment (TME) is not preserved
Fragmentation method:
Advantages Disadvantages
 • TME is maintained (hypoxia, acidity, cell:cell interactions, tissue architecture)
 • May better reconstitute the immune component to some degree
 • Not representative of the entire tumor (spatially segregated subclones and immune cells)
 • Cannot study early tumor formation and responses