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Table 1 A concise summary of significant findings from preclinical studies combining immunotherapy with thermal ablation

From: Immuno-thermal ablations – boosting the anticancer immune response

Significance At A Glance
Radiofrequency Ablation Survival Rechallenge Tumor Volume Cytolytic Activity CD4+ Tumor Infiltration CD8+ Tumor Infiltration
+CpG B [31] NS
+Ex Vivo Stimulated Dendritic Cells [38, 46]
+Poxviral CEA/TRICOM Vaccine [40] NS
+CC Chemokine Ligand 3 [41]
+Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies [10]
+Anti-CD25 Antibodies [10] `−
+Anti-PD-1 Antibodies [16]
Cryoablation Survival Rechallenge MHC I Presentation MHC II Presentation CD4+ Tumor Infiltration CD8+ Tumor Infiltration
+CpG ODN [12]
+Ex Vivo Immature Dendritic Cells [37]
+ TLR7 Agonist Imiquimod [11]
Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies [10, 15]
Anti-CD25 Antibodies [10]
+Cyclophosphamide [44]
Microwave Ablation Survival Rechallenge Tumor Volume Th1/Th2 Cytokine Ratio CD4+ Tumor Infiltration CD8+ Tumor Infiltration
+OK 432 [42]
+GM-CSF Microspheres [45]
+GM-CSF Microspheres & Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies [45]
  1. ↑ Significantly improved response (p < 0.05), ↓ significant decrease (p < 0.05), NS not significant