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Table 2 Studies that investigated the effects of combining radiofrequency ablation with immunomodulation and their results

From: Immuno-thermal ablations – boosting the anticancer immune response

Radiofrequency Ablation and Immunotherapy
Reference Tumor Model Immunotherapy Endpoints RFA Monotherapy Combination Therapy
Behm, B., et al. [31] VX2 Rabbit Liver Cancer CpG B Mean Animal Survival After Inoculation 97.3 Days
(Range: 76–120)
(p < 0.05 versus Control)
113.9 Days
(Range: 89–120)
(p < 0.05 versus Control & Monotherapy)
Tumor Specific Lymphocyte Stimulation Index 2 Weeks After Treatment 88.49 SI
(39.30 StdDev)
(p < 0.05 versus Control)
103.43 SI
(55.55 StdDev)
(p < 0.05 versus Control)
Cytolytic Activity 2 Weeks After TreatmentNS 487.79 RLU
(148.69 StdDev)
(Not Significant versus Control)
972.72 RLU
(362.77 StdDev)
(p < 0.05 versus Control)
Rechallenge With Malignant Cells to Animals Surviving 160 Days All Animals Developed Pulmonary Metastases Pulmonary Metastases Developed in 2 out of 6 Animals
den Brok, M.H., et al. [10] B16OVA Murine Melanoma Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies OVA Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 40 Days Used as Control with Sham IgG Antibodies Significant Increase in Percentage Survival Versus Control
(p < 0.05)
OVA kb Tetramer Positive CD8b + T Cells After 10 Days 0.1% of CD8b + T Cells 4.2% of CD8b + T Cells
Anti-CD25 Antibodies OVA Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 40 Days Used as Control with Sham IgG Antibodies Significant Increase in Percentage Survival Versus Control
(p < 0.05)
OVA kb Tetramer Positive CD8b + T Cells After 10 Days 0.1% of CD8b + T Cells 2.8% of CD8b + T Cells
Dromi, S.A., et al. [36] MB49 Murine Urothethial Carcinoma Intratumoral Injection of Immature Ex-Vivo Dendritic Cells Median Tumor Volume Change Significant Volume Loss Versus Control
(p < 0.05 versus Control)
No Significance Established Versus Control or Monotherapy
(p = 0.07)
Nakagawa, H., et al. [38] MC38 Murine Colon Cancer Local Injection of OK-432 Stimulated Dendritic Cells Mean Tumor Volume 10 Days After Treatment No Significant Established Versus Control Significant Volume Loss Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
CD4+ T Cell Infiltration into Untreated Tumors 10 Days After Treatment Significantly Increased
Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Control & Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
CD8+ T Cell Infiltration into Untreated Tumors
10 Days After Treatment
Significantly Increased
Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Control & Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
Liu, Q., et al. [39] B16F10-luc Murine Melanoma Heat-shocked Tumor Cell Lysate-pulsed Dendritic Cells Percent Survival 100 Days After Treatment No Data Significantly Increased Versus Combination with Unheated Tumor Cell Lysate Pulsed DC’s (p < 0.01)
IFN-γ Produced by CD+ T Cells Isolated From Draining Lymph Nodes After 2 Weeks No Data Significantly Increased Versus Combination with Unheated Tumor Cell Lysate Pulsed DC’s
(p < 0.01)
Gameiro, S.R., et al. [40] MC38 CEA+ Murine Colon Cancer Poxviral Vaccine Expressing CEA and a TRIad of Costimulatory Molecules (CEA/TRICOM) Primary & Distal Tumor Burden at Day 24 Combined Volume Significantly Reduced Versus Control
(p < 0.0001)
Combined Volume Significantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.0054)
Relapse Free Survival 34.5% Animals Achieved Tumor Eradication
50% Subsequently Relapsed
52% Animals Achieved Tumor Eradication
30.8% Subsequently Relapsed
Iida, N., et al., [41] BNL 1ME A.7R.1 Murine Hepatoma Active Variant of CC Chemokine Ligand 3 (ECI301) Tumor Volume After 14 Days Significantly Reduced Compared to Control
(p < 0.01)
Significantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.05)
CD4+ & CD8+ T Cell Infiltration After 3 Days Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.01)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.01)
Shi, L., et al. [16] CT26 Murine Colon Cancer Anti-PD-1 Antibodies Tumor Volume After 30 Days No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Reduced Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
Total Survival After Inoculation No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Prolonged Survival Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
  1. Cytolytic activity as measured by relative luminescence units (RLU) of adenylate kinase released by isolated peripheral blood T cells
  2. NS, not significant