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Table 4 Studies that investigated the effects of combining microwave ablation with immunomodulation and their results

From: Immuno-thermal ablations – boosting the anticancer immune response

Microwave Ablation and Immunotherapy
Reference Tumor Model Immunotherapy Endpoint Ablation Monotherapy Combination Therapy
Li, L., et al. [42] 4 T1 Murine Breast Cancer OK-432 Total Survival After Treatment No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Prolonged Compared to Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
Rechallenge to Surviving Mice 25 Days After Treatment No Data Significantly Decreased Tumor Volume Versus Control After 25 Days
(p < 0.05)
Infiltration of CD4+ T Cells Into Tumors Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Control NOT Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
Infiltration of CD8+ T Cells Into Tumors Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.001)
Percentage of Splenic CD4+ T Cells Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.01)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.05)
Percentage of Splenic CD8+ T Cells Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.01)
Number of 4 T1 Specific IFN-γ Secreting Cells Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 0.001)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p = 0.031)
Ratio of Th1 to Th2 Cytokines Produced by CD4+ T Cells No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.05)
Levels of Plasma IL-18 7 Days After Treatment No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.01)
Levels of Plasma IL-2 7 Days After Treatment No Significance Established Versus Control Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.05)
Levels of Plasma IL-12 7 Days After Treatment Significantly Increased Versus Control
(p < 005)
Significantly Increased Versus Monotherapy
(p < 0.01)
Chen, Z., et al. [45] Hepa 1–6 Murine Hepatoma Intratumoral Microspheres Encapsulating
GM-CSF
Tumor Free Survival Following Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 8 Weeks Used as Control with Sham BSA Microspheres Significant Increase in Percent Tumor Free Survival Versus Monotherapy After 6–7 Weeks
(p < 0.01)
Tumor Volume Following Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 8 Weeks Used as Control with Sham BSA Microspheres Significant Decrease Versus Monotherapy After 8 Weeks
(p = 0.0183)
GM-CSF Microspheres + Anti-CTLA-4 Antibodies Tumor Free Survival Following Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 8 Weeks MWA/GM-CSF/Sham IgG Antibodies Used as Control Significant Increase in Percent Tumor Free Survival Versus Control After 6–7 Weeks
(p = 0.0189)
Tumor Volume Following Rechallenge to Animals Surviving 8 Weeks MWA/GM-CSF/Sham IgG Antibodies Used as Control Significant Decrease in Tumor Volume Versus Control
After 8 Weeks
(p < 0.02)
Total Survival After Inoculation MWA/GM-CSF/Sham IgG Antibodies Used as Control Significantly Prolonged Compared to Control
(p < 0.002)