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Table 3 Sample statistics on proportions of patients in N trials with adverse events as shown. P-values are by an exact form of the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparison of the trial results among all three disease types, while they are by an exact form of the Wilcoxon rank sum test for comparison of trial results between HCC and NSCLC or melanoma

From: Safety in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with immune checkpoint inhibitors as compared to melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer

         Overall Comparison HCC vs NSCLC HCC vs melanoma
Disease Variable Mean N Standard Error Lower Quartile Median Upper Quartile p-value p-value p-value
HCC Taken off therapy secondary to toxicity 0.10 3 0.04 0.03 0.13 0.15 0.48 0.39 0.96
Death secondary to therapy 0.00 3 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.11 0.34
Elevation AST any grade 0.38 3 0.17 0.10 0.34 0.70 0.0051 0.036 0.011
Elevation AST grade 3–4 0.24 3 0.12 0.05 0.22 0.45 0.0096 0.036 0.0028
Elevation ALT any grade 0.28 3 0.14 0.09 0.19 0.55 0.0083 0.036 0.022
Elevation ALT grade 3–4 0.12 3 0.07 0.03 0.09 0.25 0.0067 0.036 0.0055
Diarrhea any grade 0.16 3 0.07 0.06 0.12 0.30 0.00079 0.71 0.11
Diarrhea grade 3–4 0.02 3 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.12 0.96 0.25
NSCLC Taken off therapy secondary to toxicity 0.06 5 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.07    
Death secondary to therapy 0.01 5 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01    
Elevation AST any grade 0.02 5 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.03    
Elevation AST grade 3–4 0.00 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00    
Elevation ALT any grade 0.02 5 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.03    
Elevation ALT grade 3–4 0.00 5 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00    
Diarrhea any grade 0.10 6 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.01    
Diarrhea grade 3–4 0.02 6 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.03    
Melanoma Taken off therapy secondary to toxicity 0.11 16 0.03 0.05 0.09 0.14    
Death secondary to therapy 0.01 16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01    
Elevation AST any grade 0.04 11 0.01 0.02 0.04 0.04    
Elevation AST grade 3–4 0.01 11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01    
Elevation ALT any grade 0.05 11 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05    
Elevation ALT grade 3–4 0.01 11 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.01    
Diarrhea any grade 0.30 16 0.04 0.17 0.31 0.41    
Diarrhea grade 3–4 0.07 16 0.02 0.01 0.05 0.13