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Table 1 Overview of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, mechanisms of action, trial designations and approved companion diagnostics

From: Development of PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors as a form of cancer immunotherapy: a comprehensive review of registration trials and future considerations

Agent Mechanism of action Trial name(s) FDA-approved PD-L1 companion diagnostic
Pembrolizumab PD-1 inhibitor KEYNOTE Primary antibody: 22C3 (Dako)
IHC scoring: Tumor cell membrane
Therapeutic developer: Merck
Nivolumab PD-1 inhibitor CheckMate Primary antibody: 28-8 (Dako)
IHC scoring: Tumor cell membrane
Therapeutic developer: BMS
Atezolizumab PD-L1 inhibitor IMVigor (UC), POPLAR (NSCLC), OAK (NSCLC) Primary antibody: SP142 (Ventana)
IHC scoring: Tumor cell membrane, infiltrating immune cells
Therapeutic developer: Genentech
Durvalumab PD-L1 inhibitor Study 1108 Primary antibody: SP263 (Ventana)
IHC scoring: Tumor cell membrane
Therapeutic developer: AstraZeneca
Avelumab PD-L1 inhibitor JAVELIN Primary antibody: 73-10 (Dako)a
IHC scoring: Tumor cell membrane
Therapeutic developer: Merck, Pfizer
  1. PD-1 programmed cell death 1, PD-L1 programmed death ligand 1, FDA Food and Drug Administration, IHC immunohistochemistry, BMS Bristol-Myers Squibb, UC urothelial carcinoma, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer
  2. a For research use only