a Structural elements and interactions captured in the IO QSP model. Abbreviations used: TCD: tumor cell death rate function; DC
: level of mature DCs; IAR: immune activation rate; Ag
: systemic level of tumor antigen; PD-L1, PD-L1 immuno-suppressive component; ISC: immuno-suppression cells; nT
: non-differentiated T cells; dT
: cytotoxic effector T cells; IAR, immune activation rate; DSB: double-strand breaks; TV
= TV + TV
, where TV and TV
are volumes of, respectively, proliferating cells and radiation-damaged non-proliferating tumor cells. b Distributions of population model predictions and corresponding tumor dynamics data. Black arrows: RT administration (fractionated dose of 5 × 2 Gy); blue arrows: anti-PD-L1 mAB administration (3qw for 3 weeks). Values on plots indicate number of complete tumor rejections and number of animals in the experiment. Experimental data are taken from Dovedi et al., 2014.