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Fig. 2 | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

Fig. 2

From: Cytokine release syndrome

Fig. 2

Reported inducers of CRS. CRS can be induced by direct target cell lysis with consecutive release of cytokines like interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or by activation of T cells due to therapeutic stimuli with subsequent cytokine release. These cytokines trigger a chain reaction due to the activation of innate immune cells like macrophages and endothelial cells with further cytokine release. Abbreviations: Ang-2: Angiopoetin 2; CAR: chimeric antigen receptor; DC: dendritic cell; IFN-γ: interferon gamma; MHC-I: major histocompatibility complex I;NK cell: natural killer cell; PD-(L)1: programmed cell death protein (ligand) 1; TCR: T cell receptor.; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; vWF: von Willebrand factor

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