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Table 1 General Patient Characteristics (IAE’s = Immune-related Adverse Events)

From: Efficacy of metformin in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (anti-PD-1/anti-CTLA-4) in metastatic malignant melanoma

Variables Cohort A (No Metformin) N = 33 (60%) Cohort B (Metformin) N = 22 (40%)  
Mean Age at Diagnosis (Years) 60.8 ± 15.3 67.4 ± 12.6 P = 0.08
Sex
 Male 19 (57.6%) 15 (68.2%) P = 0.42
 Female 14 (42.4%) 7 (31.8%)  
Dead 11 (36.4%) 5 (22.7%) P = 0.28
TNM Stage
 IIIC 2 (6%) 0 (0%)  
 IV 31 (94%) 22 (100%) P = 0.23
BRAF Mutations 14 (58.3%) 11 (73.3%) P = 0.34
NRAS Mutations 5 (21.7%) 4 (26.7%) P = 0.67
Mean no. of mutations 1.3 ± 0.8 1.46 ± 0.9 P = 0.67
History of Diabetes 1 (3%) 17 (77.3%) P < 0.001
Median Metformin Dose   500 mg BID (Range 500 mg BID – 1000 mg BID)  
Median duration of Metformin Therapy (Months)   13.5 (0.5–108.7)  
Radiation therapy 6 (18.2%) 2 (9%) P = 0.34
Prior Chemo/Immunotherapy 14 (42.4%) 9 (40.9%) P = 0.91
Immunotherapy
 Anti- PD-1 (Pembrolizumab, Nivolumab) 20 (60.6%) 14 (63.6%) P = 0.93
 Ipilimumab/Nivolumab 9 (27.2%) 6 (27.3%)
 Ipilimumab 4 (12.1%) 2 (9.1%)
Progression 20 (60.6%) 10 (45.4%) P = 0.26
Mean number of metastatic site involved before starting therapy 2.54 ± 1 2.36± 0.95 P = 0.5
Mean number of new metastatic site appeared while on therapy 1.51±1.5 0.59± 0.5 P = 0.009
Skeletal Metastasis
 Before therapy 7 (21.2%) 4 (18.2%) P = 0.78
 During Therapy 6 (18.2%) 3 (13.6%) P = 0.69
Brain Metastasis
 Before therapy 6 (18.2%) 2 (9%) P = 0.34
 New brain metastasis during therapy 5 (15.2%) 1 (4.5%) P = 0.21
IAE 20 (60%) 13 (59%) P = 0.91
Prednisone required for IAE’s 18 (54.5%) 13 (59%) P = 0.73
Performance Status
 0 12 (36.4%) 11 (50%) P = 0.33
 1 14 (42.4%) 8 (36.4%)
 2 7 (21.2%) 2 (9.1%)
 3 0 (0%) 1 (4.5%)