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Table 1 Overview of 19F MRI applications in cell therapy for cancer. SC = subcutaneously, LN = lymph node, CNS = central nervous system, * = clinical trial

From: Fluorine-19 MRI for detection and quantification of immune cell therapy for cancer

Cell type Recipient species model Tracer agent Therapy delivery route Imaging post-transfer (day) Key findings Reference
T-cell therapy
 Primary BALB/c mouse T-cells BALB/c mouse N/A BODIPy-TR PFPE Intraperitoneal 2 T cell homing to the abdominal LN [22]
 Human CAR T against EGFRvIII SCID mouse glioblastoma SC CS-1000 ATM Intravenously 2, 7, 14 CAR T cell homing to the tumors and spleen, reduced tumor growth [40]
 DO11.10 mouse T cells BALB/c mouse chicken ova SC PFPE/PFPE –Alexa657 Intraperitoneal 4, 7, 11, 21 T cell homing to the draining inguinal LN and persistence over 3 weeks [35]
 Naïve T cells, OT-1 T cells C57BL/6 mouse melanoma expressing ova CS-1000 ATM Intravenously 1 No signal found in the tumor, but found in the chest (lungs), abdomen (liver), and left flank (spleen) [41]
 Pmel-1 cytotoxic T cells C57BL/6 mouse CNS glioma PCE Intravenously 3, 5, 7, 12 Significant pO2 increase in Pmel-1 treated mice at day 5 compared to controls [71]
NK cell therapy
 Human NK cells NSG mouse neuroblastoma SC CS-1000 ATM Subcutaneously or intratumorally 1, 3, 7/8, 10, 15 NK cell detection and persistence at injection sites, no evidence of migration [37]
 Human NK cells NSG mouse meduloblastoma CNS CS-ATM DM Green Intratumorally 0 In vivo visualization of NK cells after transfer [36]
DC vaccines
 Mouse bone marrow-derived DC C57BL/6 mouse N/A PCE Intradermally in the limb 1 Migration of antigen-loaded DC from the footpad to the draining lymph node [32]
 In situ DC labeling C57BL/6 mouse CNS glioma Rhodamine-PCE Intravenously 1 Migration if In situ labeled DC to CNS tumors, reduced tumor growth [59]
 Mouse bone marrow-derived DC C57BL/6 mouse N/A Rhodamine-PCE Intradermally in the limb 0 Migration of Erk−/− DC to the draining popliteal lymph node [59]
 Autologous human DC vaccine* Human Metastatic colorectal cancer CS-1000 (PFPE) Intradermally in quadriceps 0, 1 Succesful first-in-man detection of DC vaccine in patients [14]
 Human PBMC Nude mouse, ham shank N/A CS-1000 ATM Intradermally and Intramuscularly 0, 2 Clinical protocol implementation for detection of PBMC in skin and muscle at 1.2 cm depth [61]