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Table 3 Biomarkers for clinical outcomes under target therapy for cancer patients

From: Soluble immune checkpoints in cancer: production, function and biological significance

Biomarker Cancer Number of patients Treatment Level changes during treatment Outcomes References
sPD-1 NSCLC n = 38 Erlotinib Uncertain Higher treatment levels associated with prolonged progression-free and overall survival [21]
sPD-L1 DLBCL n = 288 High-dose chemotherapy + rituximab Uncertain High pre-treatment levels associated with poorer prognosis [34]
Malignant melanoma n = 251 Ipilimumab (±bevacizumab or sargramostim), pembrolizumab Uncertain High pre-treatment levels associated with disease progression [35]
NSCLC n = 39 Nivolumab Uncertain Lower basal plasma levels associated with better clinical benefit [36]
sCTLA-4 Melanoma n = 14 Ipilimumab Not mentioned Higher sCTLA4 in responders, associated with longer OS [48]
  1. Such studies supply information for the formulation of diagnostic tools. Uncertain means the levels may be as same as control or be higher or lower than control in the study; not mentioned means no data found in the study