Skip to main content

Table 1 Common tumor escape associated changes

From: Oncolytic virus immunotherapy: future prospects for oncology

Molecule Full Name Level of Effect Type of Disruption Consequence Ref
MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex Tumor Downregulation T cell anergy as costimulatory signal for epitope imprinting factor not presented to T cells [31,32,33, 43]
TRAIL Tumor Necrosis Factor Related Apoptosis Inducing Ligand Tumor Downregulation Induction of NK cell apoptosis by TRAIL-R2 binding [31, 32, 38, 39, 43]
FAS CD95 Tumor Downregulation Inability to induce TNF superfamily mediated apoptosis [31, 32, 37, 48]
HLA-E Human Leukocyte Antigen E Tumor Upregulation Binding to inhibitory receptor CD94/NKG2A on NK and CD8+ cells [32, 44]
TGFβ Transforming Growth Factor Beta Tumor Upregulation Inhibition of CD8+ T cell and NK cell proliferation and differentiation and disruption of T cell stimulation by antigen presenting cells [32, 34,35,36]
VEGF Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Tumor Upregulation Inhibition of NK κ B mediated dendritic cell differentiation [32, 43, 49]
IL 10 Interleukin 10 Tumor Upregulation Inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation and tumor cell TAP 1 and 2 production as well as CD4+ inhibition [32, 42, 43]
FLIP FLICE Inhibitory Pathway Tumor Upregulation Inhibition of death receptor mediated apoptosis by caspase 8 and FADD binding [32, 37]
CD47 Integrin Associated Protein Tumor Upregulation Signal regulatory protein alpha stimulation within macrophages for ‘don’t eat me’ signal [31]
Bcl XL B Cell Lymphoma Extra Large Tumor Upregulation Inhibition of TRAIL pathway and CD 95 mediated apoptosis [32, 38]
IFNγ Interferon Gamma Tumor Downregulation Loss of STAT1 activation and resultant MHC production [21, 31, 39, 41, 43]
IFNγ Interferon Gamma Niche Upregulation Induction of PDL1 production to induce T cell deactivation [21, 31, 41, 43]
iMCs Immature Myeloid Cells Niche Upregulation Induction of T cell apoptosis, inhibition of T cell proliferation, induction of regulatory phenotype [32]
Type II Mφ Type II Macrophages Niche Upregulation Disrupt Th1 immunity, promote angiogenesis and repair mechanisms [21, 32, 45]
IDO Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase Immune Upregulation Suppression of activated cytotoxic T cells and induction of regulatory T cells [30, 32, 50]
CD4+CD25+ Treg Regulatory T Cells Immune Upregulation Prevention of activation for CD4+, CD8+, and NK T cells [35, 40]
CD1d restricted T cell Type II Natural Killer T Cells Immune Upregulation Suppression of cytotoxic T cell differentiation via TGFβ production [32, 40]
PDL1 Programmed Death Ligand 1 or B7-H1 Immune Upregulation Induction of T cell apoptosis by binding of PD1 [32, 41]