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Fig. 3 | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

Fig. 3

From: Cryotherapy for nodal metastasis in NSCLC with acquired resistance to immunotherapy

Fig. 3

Hypothesis of overcoming acquired resistance. Cryoablation may have boosted immune response in acquired resistance of anti-PD-1 axis therapy for NSCLC when concomitantly used with a PD-1 inhibitor. a Anti-PD-1 therapy blocks inhibiting pathways and increases T-cell response. b CD8+ T-cell exhaustion, upregulation of alternative co-inhibitory immune pathways. c Partial cryoablation of a lymph node increases dendritic cell load and boosts T-cell response against tumor cells in residual lymph node tissue and maybe also in distant tumor

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