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Table 2 Association between biomarkers at baseline, clinical covariates and overall survival for metastatic melanoma patients

From: Non-invasive biomarkers derived from the extracellular matrix associate with response to immune checkpoint blockade (anti-CTLA-4) in metastatic melanoma patients

Variable HR 95%Cl p-value
PRO-C3 Continuous 1.03 1.02–1.05 0.0004
5.0–19.2 ng/ml, Q1-Q3 1.00
 Univariate 19.6–113.3 ng/ml, Q4 2.13 1.12–4.04 0.021
5.0–19.2 ng/ml, Q1-Q3* 1.00
 Multivariate 19.6–113.3 ng/ml, Q4* 2.04 1.00–4.16 0.049
C1M Continuous 1.01 1.00–1.01 0.005
20–46.6 ng/ml, Q1-Q3 1.00
 Univariate 56.7–313.1 ng/ml, Q4 1.70 0.85–3.38 0.131
20–46.6 ng/ml, Q1-Q3* 1.00
 Multivariate 56.7–313.1 ng/ml, Q4* 1.17 0.54–2.51 0.693
C3M Continuous 1.03 1.00–1.07 0.037
4.7–23.4, Q1-Q3 1.00
 Univariate 23.6–68.8, Q4 1.60 0.82–3.13 0.167
4.7–23.4, Q1-Q3* 1.00
 Multivariate 23.6–68.8, Q4* 1.06 0.48–2.33 0.886
C4M Continuous 1.04 1.01–1.08 0.026
11.9–34.7 ng/ml, Q1-Q3 1.00
 Univariate 35.1–73.9 ng/ml, Q4 2.43 1.26–4.70 0.008
11.9–34.7 ng/ml, Q1-Q3* 1.00
 Multivariate 35.1–73.9 ng/ml, Q4* 2.18 1.01–4.70 0.046
VICM Continuous 0.99 0.95–1.02 0.413
1.0–9.1 ng/ml, Q1-Q2 1.00
 Univariate 9.1–41.3 ng/ml, Q3-Q4 0.54 0.29–0.99 0.044
1.0–9.1 ng/ml, Q1-Q2* 1.00
 Multivariate 9.1–41.3 ng/ml, Q3-Q4* 0.49 0.26–0.92 0.026
Age at baseline   1.02 0.99–1.04 0.254
LDH at sampling Continuous 1.00 1.00–1.00 0.009
(> = 250 IU/L) 2.02 0.99–4.12 0.052
Prior systemic therapy   1.32 0.73–2.40 0.363
  1. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated by univariate and multivariate analysis (indicated by stars). By the univariate analysis, biomarkers were analyzed on both a continuous scale and divided into quartiles with the lower quartiles (Q1-Q3) or (Q1-Q2) used as a reference to calculate the HR for patients in the upper quartiles (Q4) or (Q3-Q4). All covariates were analyzed on a continuous scale and LDH was furthermore analyzed on a binominal scale. By the multivariate analysis, the individual biomarkers were adjusted for the covariates age, LDH and prior systemic treatment. LDH Lactate dehydrogenase