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Table 1 A comparison of three oncolytic viruses: strength and pitfalls

From: Vaccinia virus-mediated cancer immunotherapy: cancer vaccines and oncolytics

Virus VV Herpes simplex virus (HSV) Coxsackievirus A21, B3 (CVA21 and CVB3)
Genome dsDNA (~ 180-Kb, 200 genes) dsDNA (~ 152-kb, 80 genes) (+) ssRNA (~ 7.4-Kb, one polyprotein)
Capacity of inserted DNA 25–40 Kb 30–40 Kb 300 bases for stable recombinant
Tumor selectivity (once inside the cells) Pexa-Vec: selectively replicates in and destroys cancer cells driven by genetic pathways commonly activated in cancers. T-VEC: two mutations make up cancer selectivity with activated Ras and high endogenous ribonucleotide reductase Aberrant signaling pathways within tumor cells
On cell surface: CVA21: ICAM-1 dependent. CVB3: CAR dependent
Life cycle Cytoplasm (no risk of integration) Nucleus (more risk of integration) Cytoplasm
Mechanisms of cell death Apoptosis and necroptosis (ICD)a Apoptosis, necrosis, and pyroptosis (ICD) Immunogenic apoptosis, autophagy (ICD)
Immunogenicity High High High
Transgene expression High High High
Clinical trial stage Phase III for liver cancer T-VEC approved for melanoma Phase II study in advanced melanoma (CVA21)
  1. aICD immunogenic cell death