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Table 3 Recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vectors as cancer vaccines: representative clinical studies

From: Vaccinia virus-mediated cancer immunotherapy: cancer vaccines and oncolytics

Name VV strains or other poxvirus TAA Immunostimulatory gene or agents Clinical trial stage and type of cancer Immunological responses and clinical outcomes References
TroVax MVA 5 T4 A variety of agents (such as IL-2, IFN-α, sunitinib) Phases II and III (n = 733)
Metastatic renal cancer
(1). Patients with good prognosis receiving vaccine + IL-2 had improved overall survival when compared to IL-2 alone. (2). Association between 5 T4-specific (but not MVA) antibody responses and enhanced survival. [73, 195]
VV with A0201- restricted epitopes MVA Epitopes from gp100, MART-2 & tyrosinase B7.1 and B7.2
(CD80 and CD86)
Phase I, II
Melanoma
Direct injection into lymph node, or given as a prime followed by peptide boosting; both gave antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. No overall survival benefit. [64, 196]
TG4010
+ chemo
MVA MUC1 IL-2 Phase 2b
Non-small cell lung cancer
TG4010 plus chemotherapy seems to improve progression-free survival relative to placebo plus chemotherapy. Because the primary endpoint was met, the trial will continue into phase III. [82]
MVA-brachyury-TRICOM MVA Brachyury TRICOM [B7.1, ICAM-1, LFA3] Phase I (n = 38)
Advanced cancer patients
Brachyury-specific T-cell responses were observed at all dose levels and in most patients. [197]
PROSTVAC VV prime and fowlpox boost PSA TRICOM [B7.1, ICAM-1, LFA3] Phase II
Prostate cancer
Increased PSA-specific CTL responses, particularly with GM-CSF or IL-2. In prostate cancer, an increase in progression-free survival was observed. [78, 79]
PANVAC
+ chemo
(docetaxel)
PANVAC (VV and fowlpox) CEA and MUC1 Just PANVAC or none (chemo alone) Phase II (n = 48)
patients with metastatic breast cancer
Combination of PANVAC with docetaxel provides a clinical benefit. The median progression-free survival was 7.9 months in the combination group vs. 3.9 months in the chemo group. [86]