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Table 4 Selective examples of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV) used in preclinical studies

From: Vaccinia virus-mediated cancer immunotherapy: cancer vaccines and oncolytics

Virus name Strain Transgene Mode of cell death Antitumor activities, especially immunity Tumor models References
Pexa-Vec
(JX-594)
Wyeth
(tk-)
GM-CSF Apoptosis and necrosis
(ICD)
Tumor cell infection and lysis; antitumor immune response; tumor vascular disruption hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other cancers [63, 104, 125]
vvDD-GFP WR
(tk−/vgf-)
EGFP;
(later CD; GM-CSF)
Necrosis and apoptosis;
(ICD))
CD11b + cells and CD11b + Ly6G+ cells (dendritic cells and neutrophils) Breast, colon, and ovarian cancer models [105, 120]
GLV-1 h68 Lister
(deletion of tk, F14.5 L, A65R)
Renilla luciferase-GFP fusion protein, β-galactosidase, β-glucuronidase Apoptosis and others Immune defense activation via IFN-stimulated genes (STAT-1 and IRF-7), cytokines, chemokines, and innate immune effector function Breast cancer and other cancer types [107, 198]
VG9-GMCSF Tiantan Guang9 strain (tk-) GM-CSF Unknown Antitumor activity and induced tumor-specific immune response Melanoma [127]
F4LJ2R WR
(F4L- and tk-)
Luciferase Unknown Durable tumor-antigen specific cytotoxic T-cell response Bladder cancer [110]
CVV Wyeth strain
tk- and repeated selection
GFP Unknown Complete regression of liver tumorigenicity and metastasis to the colon. HCC [115]
deVV5 Chimeric VV from WY, MVA, WR, and COP tk deletion and fcu1 addition results in deVV5-fcu1 Unknown Higher tumor selectivity and more viral replication in cancer cells Not tested yet [113]
CF33 and CF189 Chimeric parapoxvirus   Unknown Effective at low viral dose; abscopal antitumor effect Triple negative breast cancer and colorectal cancer [114, 123]