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Table 2 Clinical characteristics and outcomes stratified by clinical symptoms

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced pancreatic injury

Characteristic Typical pancreatitis symptoms, n = 32 No typical pancreatitis symptoms, n = 50 P
Median time from immune checkpoint inhibitor initiation to peak lipase value (interquartile range) 107 days (3-511) 116 days (8-699) 0.520
Baseline risk factors
 History of smoking 14 (44) 21 (42) 1.000
 Alcohol consumption 12 (38) 23 (46) 0.498
 Type II diabetes mellitus 6 (19) 15 (30) 0.307
 Drug allergy 22 (69) 29 (58) 0.360
 Prior history of pancreatitis 6 (19) 1 (2) 0.013
 Pancreatic metastasis 6 (19) 5 (10) 0.325
Mean biochemistry peak value (standard deviation)
 Lipase 3227 U/L (3563) 1989 U/L (1479) 0.032
 Amylase 378 U/L (335) 270 U/L (217) 0.082
Computed tomography findings of pancreatitis 8 (25) 3 (6) 0.055
Hemodynamic instability    0.214
 Pancreatitis only 5 (16) 2 (4)  
 Other reasons 6 (19) 12 (24)  
Fever 6 (19) 1 (2) 0.013
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy discontinued 24 (75) 23 (46) 0.012
Treatment for pancreatitis
 Intravenous fluids 23 (72) 9 (18) <0.001
 Fluid amounta 3.9 L (1.4 L) 3.9 L (3.1 L) 0.995
 Steroids    0.008
  For pancreatitis only 9 (28) 2 (4)  
  For other reasons also 5 (16) 15 (30)  
Mean time from peak lipase value to improvement to grade 1 (standard deviation) 55 days (54) 53 days (48) 0.877
Outcomesb 2 (6) 9 (18) 0.188
 Pancreatic pseudocyst 2 (6) 1 (2) 0.557
 Hospitalization 15 (47) 0 (0) <0.001
 Diabetes 1 (3) 1 (2) 1.000
 Chronic pancreatitis features 1 (3) 2 (4) 1.000
 Recurrence 1 (3) 3 (6) 1.000
  1. aThe amount of intravenous fluid administered within 48 hours after the onset of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced pancreatic injury was recorded.
  2. bIncluding short-term outcomes (pancreatic pseudocyst and hospitalization) and long-term outcomes (diabetes, chronic pancreatitis features, and recurrence)