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Table 4 Clinical characteristics of patients who had adverse outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced pancreatic injury (chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, and recurrence)

From: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced pancreatic injury

Characteristic No. (%) P
Adverse outcomes, n = 11 No adverse outcomes, n = 71
Mean duration of ICI therapy (standard deviation) 412 days (361) 200 days (197) 0.006
Checkpoint inhibitor type    0.739
 CTLA-4–based therapya 3 (27) 26 (37)  
 PD-1/L1 monotherapy 8 (73) 45 (63)  
Clinical presentation
 Epigastric pain 2 (18) 30 (42) 0.188
 Nausea and vomiting 2 (18) 21 (30) 0.720
 Fever 1 (9) 6 (8) 1.000
 Dyspnea 0 (0) 17 (24) 0.109
 Hemodynamic instability 1 (9) 24 (34) 0.159
Mean peak lipase value (standard deviation) 1700 U/L (636) 2592 U/L (2723) 0.285
Computed tomography findings of pancreatitis 1 (9) 10 (14) 1.000
Mean duration from peak lipase value to improvement to grade 1b (standard deviation) 59 days (33) 53 days (53) 0.693
Immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy resumption 7 (64) 28 (39) 0.191
Treatment for pancreatitis treatment    
 Hospitalization 1 (9) 14 (20) 0.679
 Intravenous fluids 1 (9) 31 (44) 0.044
 Fluid amountc 2.1 L (-)d 3.9 L (2.0) 0.382
 Steroids 5 (45) 26 (37) 0.740
  1. aCTLA-4–based therapy included CTLA-4 monotherapy and combination of CTLA-4 and PD-1/L1 agents.
  2. bImprovement was defined as return of lipase value to grade 1.
  3. cThe amount of intravenous fluid administered within 48 hours after the onset of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced pancreatic injury.
  4. dOnly one patient had data available