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Table 1 Description of cases and controls

From: Influenza vaccination and myocarditis among patients receiving immune checkpoint inhibitors

  Myocarditis (n = 101) Controls (n = 201) P Value
Age at start of ICI, yrs 67 ± 18 64 ± 14 0.15
Male 73 (72) 129 (64) 0.16
CV risk factors
 Current or prior smoking 40 (47) 110 (58) 0.10
 Hypertension 59 (60) 115 (61) 0.88
 Diabetes mellitus 22 (23) 29 (15) 0.09
 No CV risk factors 23 (23) 40 (20) 0.56
Coronary artery disease 12 (13) 24 (13) 0.86
Stroke 7 (8) 22 (12) 0.32
Heart failure 5 (6) 13 (7) 0.69
COPD 12 (14) 25 (13) 0.87
Obstructive sleep apnea 6 (7) 11 (6) 0.70
Chronic kidney diseasea 9 (11) 31 (16) 0.22
Body mass index, kg/m2 28 ± 7 26 ± 6 0.01
Primary cancer type
 Head and neck 5 (5) 14 (7) 0.50
 Hodgkin’s lymphoma 2 (2) 2 (1) 0.60
 Melanoma 44 (44) 100 (50) 0.31
 Lung cancer 17 (17) 35 (17) 1.00
 Pancreatic 2 (2) 0 0.11
 Renal cell carcinoma 6 (6) 3 (1) 0.07
 Glioblastoma 2 (2) 2 (1) 0.60
 Other 23 (23) 20 (10) 0.005
Prior chemotherapy or radiation
 Radiation 29 (29) 108 (54) < 0.001
 Anthracyclines 6 (6) 3 (1) 0.07
 Cyclophosphamide 2 (2) 2 (1) 0.60
 Gemcitabine 5 (5) 8 (4) 0.77
 Taxanes 6 (6) 32 (16) 0.01
 Carboplatin 8 (8) 60 (30) < 0.001
 VEGF Inhibitors 1 (1) 7 (3) 0.28
Pre-ICI home CV medications
 Statin 32 (37) 45 (24) 0.02
 Aspirin 23 (26) 42 (22) 0.43
 Beta-blockers 24 (28) 55 (29) 0.84
 ACE inhibitors or ARB 26 (30) 38 (20) 0.07
 Calcium-channel blocker 8 (9) 33 (17) 0.08
Rate of influenza vaccination
6 months:
 6 months prior to ICI or on ICI 25 (25) 80 (40) 0.01
 Time of vaccination prior to ICI, days 88 [25, 120] 79 [43, 170] 0.53
3 months:
 3 months prior to ICI or on ICI 17 (17) 69 (34) 0.002
 Time of vaccination prior to ICI, days 31 [6,85] 44 [13,58] 0.88
On ICI therapy only:
 On ICI 8 (8) 34 (17) 0.04
  1. Values are mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. aChronic kidney disease = glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. ICI immune checkpoint inhibitors, CV cardiovascular, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers