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Table 1 Correlation between HHLA2 expression and baseline clinicopathological features in the training and validation cohort with ICC

From: HHLA2 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: an immune checkpoint with prognostic significance and wider expression compared with PD-L1

Characteristics Training cohort (n = 153) Validation cohort (n = 65)
Patients HHLA2 expression Patients HHLA2 expression
NO. % Low High P-value NO. % Low High P-value
All patients 153 100.0 78 75   65 100.0 21 44  
Age      0.805      0.601
  ≤ 60 78 51.0 39 39   31 47.7 11 20  
  >  60 75 49.0 39 36   34 52.3 10 24  
Liver cirrhosis      0.199      0.486
 Absent 131 85.6 64 67   56 86.2 19 37  
 Present 22 14.4 14 8   9 13.8 2 7  
ALBI grade      0.468      0.194
 1 122 79.7 64 58   39 60.0 15 24  
 2 31 20.3 14 17   26 40.0 6 20  
Tumor size      0.594      0.575
  ≤ 5 cm 64 41.8 31 33   37 56.9 13 24  
  >  5 cm 89 58.2 47 42   28 43.1 8 20  
Tumor differentiation      0.833      0.368
 I - II 126 82.4 65 61   30 46.2 8 22  
 III - IV 27 17.6 13 14   35 53.8 13 22  
Tumor number      0.885      0.894
 Single 113 73.9 58 55   52 80.0 17 35  
 Multiple 40 26.1 20 20   13 20.0 4 9  
MVI      0.066      0.119
 Absent 116 75.8 64 52   53 81.5 19 34  
 Present 37 24.2 14 23   12 18.5 2 10  
LN metastasis      0.071      0.013
 Absent 134 87.6 72 62   35 53.8 16 19  
 Present 19 12.4 6 13   30 46.2 5 25  
CA19–9a      < 0.001      0.078
  ≤ 37 U/L 69 46.3 46 23   30 46.2 13 17  
  >  37 U/L 80 53.7 30 50   35 53.8 8 27  
CEAa      < 0.001      0.001
  ≤ 5 ng/ml 121 81.2 72 49   36 55.4 18 18  
  >  5 ng/ml 28 18.8 4 24   29 44.6 3 26  
AJCC 8th      0.053      0.024
 I-II 122 79.7 67 55   19 29.2 10 9  
 IIIa-IIIb 31 20.3 11 20   46 70.8 11 35  
  1. Abbreviations: ALBI albumin-bilirubin, MVI microvascular invasion, LN lymph node, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer; P-value < 0.05 marked in bold font shows statistical significant. aFor 4 patients of the training cohort, the data of CA19–9 and CEA were not available