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Table 2 Univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors correlated with OS

From: HHLA2 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: an immune checkpoint with prognostic significance and wider expression compared with PD-L1

Variables Overall survival
Training cohort (n = 153) Validation cohort (n = 65)
Univariate P-value Multivariate P-value Multivariate HR (95%CI) Univariate P-value Multivariate P-value Multivariate HR (95%CI)
Gender (male vs female) 0.300 NA NA 0.501 NA NA
Age, years (>  60 vs ≤ 60) 0.350 NA NA 0.365 NA NA
Liver cirrhosis (yes vs no) 0.209 NA NA 0.077 NA NA
ALBI grade (2 vs 1) 0.876 NA NA 0.075 NA NA
Tumor size, cm (> 5 cm vs ≤ 5) 0.231 NA NA 0.137 NA NA
Tumor number (multiple vs single) < 0.001 0.001 2.167 (1.375–3.416) 0.584 NA NA
MVI (yes vs no) 0.001 0.007 1.847 (1.179–2.892) 0.784 NA NA
LN metastasis (yes vs no) < 0.001 0.001 2.711 (1.534–4.791) 0.004 0.053 1.879 (0.993–3.577)
Tumor differentiation (III-IV vs I-II) 0.223 NA NA 0.495 NA NA
CA19–9,U/L (>  37 vs ≤ 37) 0.048 0.261 1.295 (0.825–2.032) 0.001 0.009 2.369 (1.242–4.519)
CEA, ng/ml (>  5 vs ≤ 5) 0.239 NA NA 0.001 0.109 1.735 (0.885–3.401)
HHLA2 expression (high vs low) 0.004 0.025 1.593 (1.059–2.396) 0.003 0.014 2.459 (1.197–5.049)
PD-L1 expression (TC ≥5% vs TC < 5%) 0.859 NA NA NA NA NA
PD-L1 expression (IC ≥1% vs IC < 1%) 0.489 NA NA NA NA NA
AJCC 8th edition (IIIa-IIIb vs I-II) < 0.001 NA NA 0.120 NA NA
  1. Abbreviations: HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, NA not available, ALBI albumin-bilirubin, MVI microvascular invasion, LN lymph node, CEA carcinoembryonic antigen, TC tumor cells, IC immune cells, AJCC American Joint Committee on Cancer; Variables with strong correlations were not analyzed together in multivariate analyses to avoid confounded results. P-value < 0.05 marked in bold font shows statistical significant