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Table 1 Major gut microbial taxa and their predominant influence on systemic immunity and response to immunotherapy

From: Could the menagerie of the gut microbiome really cure cancer? Hope or hype

Gut Taxa Immune effect/Treatment response Study type Cancer type Reference
Predominately positive influence
Firmicutes
Faecalibacterium prauznitzii Boosts effector T-cells and dampens T-regs [38]. Humans Melanoma Gopalakrishnan et al. (2018)
Faecalibacterium spp. Increases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy [44]. Humans Multiple myeloma Chaput et al. (2017)
Eubacterium limosum
Clostridiales spp.
Ruminococcaceae spp.
Phasolarctobacterium spp.
Boost CD8+ T-cells and enhance anti-PD-1 responses [33]. Cell line Colorectal Adenocarcinoma
Cell line (MC38)
Tanoue et al. (2019)
Fusobacteria
Fusobacterium ulcerans
Fusobacterium varium
Boost CD8+ T-cells and enhance anti-PD-1 responses [33]. Cell line MC38 Tanoue et al. (2019)
Verrucomicrobia
Akkermansia muciniphilia Increase in memory T-cells and decrease in T-regs in the TME [39]. Humans Epithelial tumors Routy et al. (2018)
Increases mucus layer of the gut to prevent lipopolysaccharides absorption [39, 41]. Humans; review Epithelial tumors Routy et al. (2018); Routy et al. (2018)
Mixed influence
Bacteroidetes
Bacteroides fragilis Increases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy [42]. Human/Animal/Cell line Epithelial tumors Vetizou et al. (2015)
Promotion of T-regs through polysaccharide-A [40]. Humans N/A Telesford et al. (2015)
Higher IL-12 levels in transplant recipients [47]. Animal/Cell line Cervical cancer Uribe-Herranz et al. (2018)
Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron Increases efficacy of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 immunotherapy [Vetizou et al. showed in anti-CTLA–4 alone; Frankel et al. showed in dual setting] [42, 45]. Humans Melanoma Frankel et al. (2017)
Bacteroides spp. Inferior response of anti-CTLA-4 immunotherapy [44]. Humans Multiple myeloma Chaput et al. (2017)
Actinobacteria
Bifidobacterium longum Increases CD8+ T-cells [43, 46]. Animal/Cell line Melanoma Sivan et al. (2015)
   Humans Melanoma Matson et al. (2018)
Bifidobacterium bifidum Induces naïve T-cell differentiation into T-regs and increases IL-10.
Increases the integrity of epithelial barrier [41].
Review N/A Routy et al. (2018)
Predominately negative influence
Proteobacteria
Enterobacteriaceae Inferior response and survival [41]. Review N/A Routy et al. (2018)