Skip to main content

Table 1 Studies linking the gut microbiome composition to efficacy of cancer therapy. The table summarizes major findings from clinical and preclinical studies pointing to a link between gut bacteria and therapeutic outcomes in the context of various cancers and therapeutic regimens

From: Exploring the emerging role of the microbiome in cancer immunotherapy

Major finding Mouse or Human data Cancer/Therapy Reference
Chemotherapy with immunostimulatory properties
Akkermansia muciniphila abundance in baseline stool samples was associated with response to ICB Mouse Various cancer models/Cyclophosphamide immunostimulatory chemotherapy [86]
 Presence of intratumoral gammaproteobacteria was associated with resistance to gemcitabine chemotherapy Human; Mouse Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma/ Gemcitabine immunostimulatory chemotherapy [94]
Immunotherapy
 Commensal microbiota was required for optimal response to therapy Mouse Various cancer models/ CpG-oligonucleotide + anti-IL-10R antibody and platinum chemotherapy (oxaliplatin) [85]
 Total body irradiation disrupted intestinal barrier and improved outcome of T-cell based therapy by a mechanism dependent on LPS/microbe translocation and TLR4 signaling Mouse Melanoma/Adoptive T cell transfer [97]
Eubacterium limosum abundance was associated with decreased risk of relapse or disease progression Human Hematologic cancers/Allo-HSCT [88]
Blautia abundance was associated with increased overall survival and reduced risk of GVHD Human Hematologic cancers/Allo-HSCT [87]
Bacteroides abundance was associated with resistance to ICB-induced colitis Human Metastatic melanoma/Anti-CTLA-4 [93]
Bacteroides abundance was associated with response to ICB Mouse; Human Metastatic melanoma/Anti-CTLA-4 [18]
Bifidobacterium abundance was associated with improved spontaneous anti-tumor immunity and response to ICB Mouse Melanoma/Anti-PD-L1 [17]
Faecalibacterium and other Firmicutes abundance in baseline stool samples was associated with response to ICB; Bacteroides abundance was associated with poor responsiveness to ICB Human Metastatic melanoma/Anti-CTLA-4 [92]
Bacteroides caccae, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Holdemania filiformis, and Dorea formicogenerans were associated with response to ICB Human Metastatic melanoma/Anti-PD-1; Anti-CTLA-4 [91]
A. muciniphila abundance in baseline stool samples was associated with response to ICB Human; Mouse Non-small cell lung cancer; Renal cell carcinoma/Anti-PD-1 [89]
 Higher microbiome richness, Clostridiales, Ruminococcaceae, and Faecalibacterium abundance, and enrichment in genes involved in anabolic pathways in baseline stool samples were associated with responsiveness to ICB Human; Mouse Metastatic melanoma/Anti-PD-1 [90]
 Several dozen bacterial species in baseline stool samples were differentially enriched between patients with strong vs. poor responsiveness to ICB Human; Mouse Metastatic melanoma/Anti-PD-1 [44]