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Table 2 Checkpoint Inhibitor-Induced Allograft Rejection in Patients with Cancer and Prior Solid Organ Transplantation

From: Checkpoint inhibitor therapy for cancer in solid organ transplantation recipients: an institutional experience and a systematic review of the literature

Prior organ transplantation Checkpoint inhibitor Allograft rejection, no./reported cases (%) Median time to rejection, days (range)
All   16/39 (41) 15.5 (5–60)
Renal Ipilimumab 2/4 (50) 21
Nivolumab 2/5 (40) 18.5 (7–30)
Pembrolizumab 4/9 (44) 21 (5–60)
Ipilimumab + nivolumab 1/1 (100) 8
Ipilimumab followed by nivolumab or pembrolizuamba 2/4 (50) 14.5 (8–21)
All 11/23 (48) 21 (5–60)
Hepatic Ipilimumab 1/3 (33) 13
Nivolumab 2/4 (50) 12.5 (7–18)
Pembrolizumab 1/3 (33) 7
Ipilimumab followed by pembrolizumaba 0/1 (0)  
All 4/11 (36) 10 (7–18)
Cardiac Ipilimumab 0/1 (0)  
Nivolumab 1/2 (50) 5
Pembrolizumab 0/1 (0)  
Ipilimumab followed by pembrolizumaba 0/1 (0)  
All 1/5 (20) 5
  1. aSix patients switched to anti-PD-1 agents after progression with ipilimumab alone. For those patients, median time to rejection (when it occurred) was calculated as the time from first infusion of the last checkpoint inhibitor agent until allograft rejection