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Table 3 Allograft Rejection and Tumor Response Rates According to the Immunosuppressive Regimen Used at Initiation of Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy

From: Checkpoint inhibitor therapy for cancer in solid organ transplantation recipients: an institutional experience and a systematic review of the literature

Immunosuppression at initiation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Allograft rejection, no./reported cases (%)

Tumor responsea, no./reported cases (%)

All patientsb

15/38 (40)

15/32c [47]

Single-agent immunosuppressive therapy

 Prednisone (≤10 mg/day)

7/9 (78)

5/8 (63)

 mTOR inhibitors

2/3 (67)

1/2 (50)

 Calcineurin inhibitors

1/9 (11)

2/8 (25)

Combination immunosuppressive therapy

5/17 (29)

7/14 (50)

  1. aDisease remission or stabilization
  2. bOne patient stopped anti-rejection medication prior to initiation of ipilimumab + nivolumab combination therapy. This patient had allograft rejection after therapy initiation but re-initiated therapy after a 1-week delay and was able to complete induction therapy, achieving partial tumor response
  3. cIn six patients, the tumor response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy was not evaluated