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Table 1 Characteristics of advanced NSCLC patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors

From: Circulating tumor cells in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients are associated with worse tumor response to checkpoint inhibitors

  Total population (n = 104) Patients with CTC at T0 (n = 33) Patients without CTC at T0 (n = 71)
n (%) n (%) n (%)
Age
 Median (range) 65 (29–83) 67 (41–83) 65 (29–80)
Gender
 Male 58 (44) 17 (51) 41 (58)
 Female 46 (56) 16 (49) 30 (42)
ECOG PS*
 0 50 (48) 9 (27) 41 (58)
 1 52 (50) 23 (70) 29 (41)
 2 2 (2) 1 (3) 1 (1)
Smoking status
 Smokers 94 (90) 28 (85) 66 (93)
 Non smokers 3 (3) 2 (6) 1 (1)
 Unknown 7 (7) 3 (9) 4 (6)
Stage
 III 12 (11) 1 (3) 1 (16)
 IV 92 (89) 32 (97) 60 (84)
Histology
 Adenocarcinoma 76 (73) 24 (72) 52 (73)
 Squamous cell carcinoma 27 (26) 8 (24) 19 (27)
 Carcinosarcoma 1 (1) 1 (4) 0 (0)
Therapy line
 1 4 (4) 3 (4) 1 (3)
 2 87 (84) 59 (83) 28 (85)
 ≥3 13 (12) 9 (13) 4 (12)
Metastatic sites
 0 15 (14) 2 (6) 13 (18)
 1 37 (36) 13 (41) 24 (34)
 2 35 (34) 12 (38) 23 (32)
 3 10 (10) 4 (13) 6 (9)
 > 3 6 (6) 1 (3) 5 (7)
Mutations a
 None identified 46 (44) 18 (55) 39 (55)
 KRAS 33 (32) 9 (27) 24 (34)
 Other 14 (13) 6 (18) 8 (11)
PD-L1 b
 <  1% 44 (43) 16 (49) 28 (39)
 1–49% expression 19 (18) 7 (21) 12 (17)
 ≥50% expression 18 (17) 5 (15) 13 (18)
 Not evaluable c 23 (22) 5 (15) 18 (25)
Therapy
 Nivolumab 89 (85) 29 (85) 60 (83)
 Pembrolizumab 8 (8) 2 (6) 6 (9)
 Atezolizumab 5 (5) 1 (3) 4 (7)
 Ipilimumab/Nivolumab 2 (2) 1 (3) 1 (1)
Response d
 Complete Response 4 (4) 0 (0) 4 (6)
 Partial Response 26 (25) 7 (21) 19 (27)
 Stable Disease 24 (23) 5 (15) 19 (27)
 Progressive Disease 50 (48) 21 (61) 29 (39)
Durable response e
 > 6 months 64 (62) 7 (21) 33 (46)
 < 6 months 40 (38) 26 (79) 38 (54)
  1. *Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Score, patients with CTC had significantly more often PS ≥1 than patients without CTC (p = 0.02)
  2. aMutations were identified by NGS, specifically the Ion Torrent using an in-house panel (IonPGM-v002) (adenocarcinoma). DNA amplifications and rearrangements were detected by means of FISH (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma)
  3. bPD-L1 expression was measured by certified pathologists on at least 100 tumor cells with 22C3 antibodies
  4. cPD-L1 could not be evaluated in 23 patients as biopsied material was of insufficient quality or quantity
  5. dRevised Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumor v1.1, Non evaluable was due to early death of the patient
  6. eDurable response was defined as SD, PR or CR for at least 6 months. Those who had a shorter tumor response duration had more often CTC (p = 0.01)