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Table 1 Characteristics of the patients, according to early use of antibiotics (EUA) and citrulline rates at baseline

From: Role of antibiotic use, plasma citrulline and blood microbiome in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with nivolumab

  All (n = 72) No EUA (n = 42) EUA (n = 30) p-value High citrulline (n = 25) Low citrulline (n = 10) p-value
Age (median, IQR) 68.8 (62.7–73.7) 69.0 (63.4–73.4) 67.8 (58.4–73.7) 0.479 69.3 (63.5–72.7) 63.6 (56.5–67.1) 0.07
Sex
 male 45 (62) 26 (62%) 19 (63%) 0.902 16 (64%) 5 (50%) 0.445
 female 27 (38) 16 (38%) 11 (37%)   9 (36%) 5 (50%)  
Smoking status
 current 29 (40) 20 (48%) 9 (30%) 0.062 11 (44%) 3 (30%) 0.534
 former 34 (47) 15 (35%) 19 (63%)   12 (48%) 5 (50%)  
 never 9 (13) 7 (17%) 2 (7%)   2 (8%) 2 (20%)  
Histological type
 adenocarcinoma 45 (63) 27 (64%) 18 (60%) 0.592 19 (76%) 4 (40%) 0.019
 squamous carcinoma 14 (19) 9 (22%) 5 (17%)   5 (20%) 2 (20%)  
 other 13 (18) 6 (14%) 7 (23%)   1 (4%) 4 (40%)  
Mutational status
 KRAS 26 (36) 12 (29%) 14 (47%) 0.292 10 (40%) 3 (30%) 0.394
 EGFR 2 (3) 1 (2%) 1 (3%)   1 (4%) 1 (10%)  
 BRAF 3 (4) 1 (2%) 2 (7%)   1 (4%) 2 (20%)  
 None or rare mutation 41 (57) 28 (67%) 13 (43%)   13 (52%) 4 (40%)  
Albumin     0.889    0.104
  < 30 g/l 12 (17) 7 (17) 5 (17)   2 (8) 3 (30)  
  ≥ 30 g/l 57 (79) 32 (76) 25 (83)   22 (88) 7 (70)  
 unknown 3 (4) 3 (7) 0 (0)   1 (4) 0 (0)  
Hemoglobin (median, IQR) 11.6 (10.0–12.7) 12.1 (11.3–13.0 10.5 (9.5–11.8) 0.006 12.3 (11.3–13.4) 9.9 (8.7–11.2) 0.006
Metastatic sites
 brain 8 (11%) 5 (12%) 3 (10%) 0.800 6 (24%) 0 0.089
 liver 10 (14%) 5 (12%) 5 (17%) 0.565 2 (8%) 2 (20%) 0.313
  ≥ 3 sites 16 (22%) 7 (17%) 9 (30%) 0.180 3 (12%) 2 (20%) 0.541
Stage
 IIIB 10 (14) 5 (12%) 1 (3%) 0.195 3 (12%) 2 (20%) 0.541
 IV 62 (86) 37 (88%) 29 (97%)   22 (88%) 8 (80%)  
Performance status
 0–1 45/71 (63) 27/41 (66%) 18 (60%) 0.216 22 (88%) 3 (30%) 0.001
 2 26/71 (37) 14/41 (34%) 12 (40%)   3 (12%) 7 (70%)  
Number of lines before nivolumab
 1 62 (86%) 37 (88%) 26 (87%) 0.587 22 (88%) 9 (90%) 0.867
  > 2 10 (14) 5 (12%) 4 (13%)   3 (12%) 1 (10%)  
PD-L1 IHC
  < 1% 8 (11) 6 (14) 2 (7) 0.072 6 (24) 2 (20) 0.900
  ≥ 1% 15 (21) 5 (12) 10 (33)   11 (44) 4 (40)  
 unknown 49 (68) 31 (74) 18 (60)   8 (32) 4 (40)  
  1. EUA early use of antibiotics. Variables expressed as n (%) unless otherwise specified. High citrulline: ≥20 μM; low citrulline: < 20 μM. P-values calculated by Mann-Whitney test or Chi2 test