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Table 1 Summary of representative studies on the combination of radiotherapy with immunotherapy in main cancer types investigated to date

From: Local and abscopal responses in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with low TMB, MSS, pMMR and negative PD-L1 expression following combined therapy of SBRT with PD-1 blockade

Cancer type Patient Characteristics Number of patients Status of TMB/MSI/MMR/PD-L1 Treatment Outcome References
Melanoma advanced melanoma 25 Not Specified RT + nivolumab or pembrolizumab CR&PR&SD&PD in irradiated lesions: 24,12,24,32%;in nonirradiated lesions: 20, 19, 12, 40% [25]
metastatic melanoma 59 Not Specified 17:RT + nivolumab or pembrolizumab 42:nivolumab or pembrolizumab RT + anti-PD-1 therapy vs anti-PD-1 therapy, ORR: 64.7% VS 33.3%; [26]
metastatic melanoma 101 Not Specified 70: concurrent radiotherapy with ipilimumab (Ipi-RT); 31 ipilimumab alone OS significantly increased (19 vs 10 months). Median PFS marginally increased (5 vs 3 months). CR rate significantly increased (25.7% vs 6.5%), OR rate increaed (37.1% vs 19.4%). [24]
NSCLC recurrence after at least 1 prior platinum-containing regimen 1736 (18 studies) Not Specified RT + nivolumab, or pembrolizumab, or ipilimumab Local Control Rate (CR + PR + S): 70.7%; median OS: 12.4 months; PFS: 4.6 months;Distant/Abscopal Response Rate (CR + PR + S):41.3%;Toxicity ≥Grade 3:20.0% [27]
Solid tumors metastatic solid tumor previously treated with standard-of-care therapy 73 (27 cancer types) Not Specified RT + pembrolizumab overall ORR: 13.2%; Median OS: 9.6 months; Median PFS: 3.1 months; nonirradiated ORR: 26.9% [34]
  1. TMB tumor mutation burden, MSI microsatellite instability, MMR mismatch repair, PD-L1 programmed death ligand-1, NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer, CR complete response, PR partial response, SD stable disease, PD progressive disease, OS overall survival, ORR objective response rate, PFS progression free survival, RT radiotherapy