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Table 3 Clinical features of patients who received anaerobic and aerobic antibiotic therapy (No. of patients who received antibiotic = 569)

From: Impact of antibiotic therapy on the development and response to treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-mediated diarrhea and colitis

FeatureAnaerobic (n = 288)Aerobic (n = 281)p
Indication for antibiotic, n (%)  < 0.001
 Upper respiratory infection12 (4.2)9 (3.2) 
 Lower respiratory infection22 (7.6)16 (5.7) 
 Gastrointestinal infection37 (12.8)31 (11.0) 
 Urinary tract infection21 (7.3)41 (14.6) 
 Skin/Soft tissue infection20 (6.9)23 (8.2) 
 Sepsis and bacteremia7 (2.4)4 (1.4) 
 Fever of unknown origin/empirical coverage101 (35.1)65 (23.1) 
 Prophylaxis25 (8.7)65 (23.1) 
 Multiple infections40 (13.9)14 (5.0) 
 Not recorded3 (1.0)13 (4.6) 
IMDC, n (%)145 (50.3)122 (43.4)0.093
Immunosuppressive therapy for IMDC, n (%)102 (35.4)71 (25.3)0.030
Median time to IMDC onset, weeks (IQR)8 (4–15)7 (4–13)0.075
Median duration of IMDC symptoms, days (IQR)9 (4–19)10 (4–20)0.118
Hospitalization, n (%)106 (73.1)62 (50.8)< 0.001
Median duration of hospitalization, days (IQR)6 (3–10)6 (3–10)0.111
ICU admission, n (%)10 (6.9)00.002
Grade of colitis, n (%)0.004
 116 (13.2)26 (31.7) 
 259 (48.8)31 (37.8) 
 340 (33.1)25 (30.5) 
 46 (5.0)0 
Grade of diarrhea, n (%)0.087
 138 (26.2)39 (32.0) 
 233 (22.8)36 (29.5) 
 360 (41.4)43 (35.2) 
 414 (9.7)4 (3.3) 
Mean calprotectin level (SD)352 (348)181 (137)0.083
Median duration of steroid administration, days (IQR)37 (20–61)45 (27–70)0.355
Intravenous steroid administration, n (%)61 (63.5)38 (55.1)0.334
Infliximab/vedolizumab administration, n (%)28 (19.3)24 (19.7)1.000
Recurrence of IMDC, n (%)25 (17.2)17 (13.9)0.503
Colon perforation, n (%)4 (2.8)00.128