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Table 5 Clinical features of the study patients according to timing of antibiotic administration

From: Impact of antibiotic therapy on the development and response to treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-mediated diarrhea and colitis

FeatureBefore ICI therapy (n = 186)After ICI therapy and before IMDC onset (n = 84)Both (n = 299)p
Indication for antibiotic, n (%)   0.015
 Upper respiratory infection4 (2.2)3 (3.6)14 (4.7) 
 Lower respiratory infection16 (8.6)3 (3.6)19 (6.4) 
 Gastrointestinal infection12 (6.5)20 (23.8)36 (12.0) 
 Urinary tract infection19 (10.2)8 (9.5)35 (11.7) 
 Skin/Soft tissue infection13 (7.0)9 (10.7)21 (7.0) 
 Sepsis and bacteremia5 (2.7)3 (3.6)3 (1.0) 
 Fever of unknown origin/empirical coverage52 (28.0)20 (23.8)94 (31.4) 
 Prophylaxis35 (18.8)9 (10.7)46 (15.4) 
 Multiple infections21 (11.3)9 (10.7)24 (8.0) 
 Not recorded9 (4.8)0 (0.0)7 (2.3) 
IMDC, n (%)56 (30.1)84 (100.0)127 (42.5)< 0.001
Immunosuppressive therapy for IMDC, n (%)33 (17.7)65 (77.4)75 (25.1)< 0.001
Median time to IMDC onset, weeks (IQR)11 (8–16)9 (5–14)5 (2–11)0.134
Median duration of IMDC symptoms, days (IQR)10 (4–21)10 (4–20)10 (4–19)0.801
Hospitalization, n (%)33 (58.9)62 (73.8)73 (57.5)0.044
Median duration of hospitalization, days (IQR)5 (3–8)7 (3–12)6 (3–9)0.234
ICU admission, n (%)1 (1.8)3 (3.6)6 (4.7)0.625
Grade of colitis, n (%)0.413
 112 (30.0)9 (12.5)21 (23.1) 
 217 (42.5)35 (48.6)38 (41.8) 
 310 (25.0)25 (34.7)30 (33.0) 
 41 (2.5)3 (4.2)2 (2.2) 
Grade of diarrhea, n (%)0.976
 117 (30.4)21 (25.0)39 (30.7) 
 214 (25.0)24 (28.6)31 (24.4) 
 322 (39.3)33 (39.3)48 (37.8) 
 43 (5.4)6 (7.1)9 (7.1) 
Intravenous steroid administration, n (%)14 (46.7)41 (65.1)44 (61.1)0.232
Infliximab/vedolizumab administration, n (%)6 (10.7)22 (26.2)24 (18.9)0.075
Recurrence of IMDC, n (%)8 (14.3)16 (19.0)18 (14.2)0.601
Colon perforation, n (%)1 (1.8)1 (1.2)2 (1.6)1.000