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Table 1 Overview of different existing anti-cancer biomaterial-based vaccines for DC recruitment and antigen loading

From: Biomaterial-based platforms for in situ dendritic cell programming and their use in antitumor immunotherapy

Approach Scaffold biomaterial Load Administration Target/tumor model
Two step Ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) polymers rods 1st CCL19
2nd Tumor lysate
Coimplantation E.G7-OVA tumor cells injected mice [61]
Hydrogel - Thermosensitive monomethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) copolymer (mPEG-PLGA) 1st - GM-CSF
2nd - Tumor antigens
2 injections (injection of viral or nonviral vectors in a 2nd step) Murine melanoma model [62]
One step Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, CpG, autologous tumor lysate Implantation Human melanoma
Phase I clinical trial NCT01753089
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, CpG, tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model [41, 63,64,65,66]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, CpG, tumor lysate Implantation Murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) [64]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, CpG, tumor lysate Implantation Rat glioma model [67, 68]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, CpG, Tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model; combination with anti PD-1 or CTLA-4 mAb [69]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) CCL20, CpG, tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model [66]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) Flt3L, CpG, tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model [66]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, MPLA, tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model [64]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, Poly-I:C, Tumor lysate Implantation Murine melanoma model [64]
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide) GM-CSF, Poly-I:C, tumor lysate Implantation Murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) [64]
Hydrogel/cryogel–alginate polymer GM-CSF, CpG, irradiated tumor cells Injection Murine breast cancer [70]
Hydrogel/cryogel–alginate polymer GM-CSF, CpG, irradiated tumor cells Injection Murine melanoma model [71]
Covalent and ionic crosslinked cryogel–alginate polymer GM-CSF, CpG, irradiated -tumor cells Injection Murine breast cancer [72]
Crosslinking hydrogel- dextran vinylsulfone and tetra-thiolated polyethyleneglycol CCL20 + PLGA microparticles encapsulating IL-10, siRNA and DNA antigen Injection Murine A20 B cell lymphoma [73]
Mesoporous silica rods (MSRs) - synthetic amorphous silica GM-CSF, CpG, OVA Injection Prophylactic action in a murine model, injected with EG7-OVA lymphoma cells [74]