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Fig. 1 | Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer

Fig. 1

From: Immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: the complex interface between inflammation, fibrosis, and the immune response

Fig. 1

Liver immunobiology across a spectrum from healthy liver to inflammation and oncogenesis. Top panel: Viral and toxic insults drive inflammation in the liver and alter the normal baseline response to gut commensals. Chronic inflammation can lead to alteration of normal immunity to both commensal organisms and pathogens, and eventually, to oncogenesis. Bottom panel: General mechanisms underlying tolerance and immunity and interactions between various cell types are outlined in each of the following states: healthy liver (left), fibrosis and cirrhosis (middle), and hepatocellular carcinoma (right). Cells that generally maintain tolerance in healthy liver and promote immune suppression and oncogenesis are colored in red while cells that favor protective anti-microbial or anti-tumor immunity are colored in blue

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