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Table 1 Characteristics of patients with paraneoplastic syndromes selected for analysis after central review. Patients were included in two observational cohorts, defined as follows: cohort 1 comprised patients with a PNS diagnosed before the initiation of immunotherapy, and cohort 2 comprised patients with a PNS diagnosed after the initiation of immunotherapy

From: Worsening and newly diagnosed paraneoplastic syndromes following anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapies, a descriptive study

Patient characteristicsCohort 1 (pre-existing PNS)
n = 16 patients
Cohort 2 (newly diagnosed PNS)
n = 16 patients
Total
n = 32 patients (%)
Age, in years, median (range)64 (48–86)68 (45–88)64 (45–88)
Sex ratio (male/female)4.30.51.8
Tumor type, n patients (%)
 - NSCLC10515 (47)
 - Melanoma156 (19)
 - Renal carcinoma123 (9)
 - Merkel carcinoma112 (6)
 - Neuroendocrine carcinoma101 (3)
 - Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma101 (3)
 - HNSCC101 (3)
 - Esthesioneuroblastoma011 (3)
 - Mesothelioma011 (3)
 - Breast cancer011 (3)
Number of prior courses of systemic cancer treatment, median (range)1.0 (0–2)0.5 (0–5)1.0 (0–5)
Immunotherapy received, n (%)
 - Anti-PD-114 (88)14 (88)28 (88)
  - Nivolumab9918
  - Pembrolizumab5510
 - Anti-PDL-12 (12)1 (6)3 (9)
  - Avelumab112
  - Durvalumab101
 - Combination immunotherapy   
  - Nivolumab + ipilimumab01 (6)1 (3)
Best overall antitumor response during immunotherapy, n (%)a
 - Objective response9 (56)6 (38)15 (47)
  - CR2 (12)1 (6)3 (9)
  - PR7 (44)5 (31)12 (38)
 - SD3 (19)8 (50)11 (34)
 - PD4 (25)2 (13)6 (19)
Immune-related adverse events other than PNSs (all severity grades), n (%)b4 (25)6 (38)10 (31)
 - Dysthyroidism112 (6)
 - Vitiligo022 (6)
 - Hepatitis011 (3)
 - Oligo-arthritis101 (3)
 - Myocarditis101 (3)
 - Rash101 (3)
 - Pneumonitis011 (3)
 - Fever011 (3)
Length of follow-up after immunotherapy initiation, median (range), months7.9 (0.9;17.7)10.5 (4;17.4)9.6 (0.9;17.7)
  1. CR Complete response, HNSCC Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, NSCLC Non-small-cell lung carcinoma, PD Progressive disease, PNS Paraneoplastic syndrome, PR Partial response, SD Stable disease
  2. aAccording to the iRECIST criteria. In patients allocated to cohort 1 who did not experienced worsening of PNS, the best overall response is shown
  3. bAll-grade severity, according to the CTCAE v4.03