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Table 2 Main characteristics of PNSs experienced by patients selected for analysis after central review

From: Worsening and newly diagnosed paraneoplastic syndromes following anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 immunotherapies, a descriptive study

ResultsPatients with pre-existing PNS (cohort 1), n = 16Patients with newly diagnosed PNS (cohort 2), n = 16Total patients
n = 32
Time from diagnosis of cancer to diagnosis of the PNS, median (range), months0.3 (−62.8;406.2)a18.6 (3.9;281.5)11.9 (−62.8;406.2)
Neurologic PNS, n patients (%)4 (25)7 (44)11 (34)
 - Encephalitis156
 - Neuropathy213
 - Lambert-Eaton syndrome112
Rheumatologic PNS, n patients (%)3 (19)6 (38)9 (28)
 - Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy246
 - RS3PE022
 - Rhizomelic pseudopolyarthritis101
Connective tissue PNS, n patients (%)6 (37)2 (12)8 (25)
 - Dermatomyositis415
 - Systemic sclerosis112
 - Myositis (anti-PL7 antisynthetase syndrome)101
Other PNSs, n patients (%)3 (19)1 (6)4 (13)
 - Membranous nephropathy101
 - IgA vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura101
 - Other, thrombotic microangiopathy101
 - Other, Cushing’s disease011
Highest CTCAE grade for PNS severity, n of patients (%)
 - Grade 1–25 (31)5 (31)10 (31)
 - Grade 3–411 (69)7 (43)18 (56)
 - Grade 504 (25)4 (13)
CTCAE grade for PNS severity at last follow-up, n of patients (%)
 - Grade 0–17 (44)5 (31)12 (38)
 - Grade ≥ 29 (56)11 (69)20 (62)
Causes of death, n of patients (%)3 (19)6 (38)9 (28)
 - PNS044 (13)
 - tumor progression224 (13)
 - comorbidity101 (3)
  1. CTCAE Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, PNS paraneoplastic syndrome, RS3PE remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema
  2. aSome patients presented with a PNS before the cancer diagnosis, which explains the negative lower boundary. Some patients presented with PNS at cancer relapse, which explains why the time between cancer diagnosis and PNS exacerbation was sometimes greater than 60 months