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Table 3 Summary of clinical trials of immune therapies (single agent or combination with angiogenics inhibitors) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

From: Angiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors as therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: current knowledge and future research directions

Type of immunotherapy Molecules Trial Phase N Population mOS mPFS ORR DCR
Anti-CTLA-4 Tremelimumab Sangro et al. [46] II 20 Pre-treated 8.2 m 6.5 m 17.6% 76.4%
   Duffy et al. [47] II 32 Pre-treated
Combination with ablation
12.3 m 7.4 m 26.3% 63%
Anti-PD-1 Pembrolizumab Zhu et al. [48] II 104 Pre-treated 12.9 m 4.9 m 17, 1% CR 60%
   Finn et al. [49] III 413 Pre-treated 13.9 m 2.8 m 18% NA
  Nivolumab El-Kouheiry et al. [50] I/II 262 Pre-treated and naive NR 4 m 20, 1% CR 64%
  Cemiplimab Pishvaian et al. [51] I 26 Pre-treated NR 3.7 m 19.2% 73%
Anti-PD-L1 Durvalumab Wainberg et al. [52] I/II 39 Pre-treated 13.2 m NA 10.3% 33% at 24 weeks
Combinations          
Anti-PD-1 + Anti CTLA-4 Nivolumab + ipilumumab Yau et al. [53] II 148 Pre-treated 24-m OS 40% NA 31, 5% CR 49%
Angiogenesis and immune checkpoints inhibitors Atezolizumab + bevacizumab Pishvaian et al. [54] Ib 68 Naive NR 14.9 m 34, 1% CR 78%
  Pembrolizumab + lenvatinib Ikeda et al. [55] Ib 18 Naive NA NA 46% 92%
  Camrelizumab + apatinib Xu et al. [56] I 16 Pre-treated NR 5.8 m 50% 93.8%
  Avelumab + axitinib Kudo et al. [57] Ib 22 Naive NR 5.5 m 13.6%/31.8% (mRECIST) NA
Cytotoxic agents and Anti-PD-1 FOLFOX4 or GEMOX + camrelizumab Qin et al. [58] II 34 Naive NR 5.5 m 26.5% 79.4%
  1. CR complete response; CTLA-4 Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4; DCR disease control rate; m months; mOS median overall survival; mPFS median progression-free-survival; N number of randomized patients; NR not reached; NA not available; ORR objective response rate; PD-1programmed cell death-1; PD-L1 Programmed death-ligand 1