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Table 3 Summary of clinical trials of immune therapies (single agent or combination with angiogenics inhibitors) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

From: Angiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors as therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: current knowledge and future research directions

Type of immunotherapyMoleculesTrialPhaseNPopulationmOSmPFSORRDCR
Anti-CTLA-4TremelimumabSangro et al. [46]II20Pre-treated8.2 m6.5 m17.6%76.4%
  Duffy et al. [47]II32Pre-treated
Combination with ablation
12.3 m7.4 m26.3%63%
Anti-PD-1PembrolizumabZhu et al. [48]II104Pre-treated12.9 m4.9 m17, 1% CR60%
  Finn et al. [49]III413Pre-treated13.9 m2.8 m18%NA
 NivolumabEl-Kouheiry et al. [50]I/II262Pre-treated and naiveNR4 m20, 1% CR64%
 CemiplimabPishvaian et al. [51]I26Pre-treatedNR3.7 m19.2%73%
Anti-PD-L1DurvalumabWainberg et al. [52]I/II39Pre-treated13.2 mNA10.3%33% at 24 weeks
Combinations         
Anti-PD-1 + Anti CTLA-4Nivolumab + ipilumumabYau et al. [53]II148Pre-treated24-m OS 40%NA31, 5% CR49%
Angiogenesis and immune checkpoints inhibitorsAtezolizumab + bevacizumabPishvaian et al. [54]Ib68NaiveNR14.9 m34, 1% CR78%
 Pembrolizumab + lenvatinibIkeda et al. [55]Ib18NaiveNANA46%92%
 Camrelizumab + apatinibXu et al. [56]I16Pre-treatedNR5.8 m50%93.8%
 Avelumab + axitinibKudo et al. [57]Ib22NaiveNR5.5 m13.6%/31.8% (mRECIST)NA
Cytotoxic agents and Anti-PD-1FOLFOX4 or GEMOX + camrelizumabQin et al. [58]II34NaiveNR5.5 m26.5%79.4%
  1. CR complete response; CTLA-4 Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4; DCR disease control rate; m months; mOS median overall survival; mPFS median progression-free-survival; N number of randomized patients; NR not reached; NA not available; ORR objective response rate; PD-1programmed cell death-1; PD-L1 Programmed death-ligand 1