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Basic Tumor Immunology

Section edited by Cornelis J.M. Melief, MD, PhD

Tumor antigens, innate and adaptive anti-tumor immune mechanisms, immune regulation, immune response, cancer and inflammation, preclinical models, chemotherapy and radiotherapy interactions/combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, other combination treatments with the anti-tumor immune response, and oncolytic viruses.

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  1. Human (gamma delta) γδ T cells are unconventional innate-like lymphocytes displaying a broad array of anti-tumor activities with promising perspectives in cancer immunotherapy. In this context, Vδ2pos T cells rep...

    Authors: Elena Bruni, Valentina Cazzetta, Matteo Donadon, Matteo Cimino, Guido Torzilli, Gianmarco Spata, Gloria Leonardi, Francesco Dieli, Joanna Mikulak and Domenico Mavilio

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:347

    Content type: Short report

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  2. Inhibitors targeting VEGF and VEGFR are commonly used in the clinic, but only a subset of patients could benefit from these inhibitors and the efficacy was limited by multiple relapse mechanisms. In this work,...

    Authors: Xuyao Zhang, Yichen Wang, Jiajun Fan, Wei Chen, Jingyun Luan, Xiaobin Mei, Shaofei Wang, Yubin Li, Li Ye, Song Li, Wenzhi Tian, Kai Yin and Dianwen Ju

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:346

    Content type: Research article

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  3. BackgroundGenetic instability is known to relate with carcinogenesis by providing tumors with a mechanism for fast adaptation. However, mounting evidence also indicates causal relation between genetic instabil...

    Authors: Guim Aguadé-Gorgorió and Ricard Solé

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:345

    Content type: Research Article

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  4. The ability to modulate immune-inhibitory pathways using checkpoint blockade antibodies such as αPD-1, αPD-L1, and αCTLA-4 represents a significant breakthrough in cancer therapy in recent years. This has driv...

    Authors: Molly A. Taylor, Adina M. Hughes, Josephine Walton, Anna M. L. Coenen-Stass, Lukasz Magiera, Lorraine Mooney, Sigourney Bell, Anna D. Staniszewska, Linda C. Sandin, Simon T. Barry, Amanda Watkins, Larissa S. Carnevalli and Elizabeth L. Hardaker

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:328

    Content type: Research article

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  5. It is unclear whether plant-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) can mediate interspecies communication with mammalian cells. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) display a continuum of different polarization s...

    Authors: Meng Cao, Huaijiang Yan, Xuan Han, Ling Weng, Qin Wei, Xiaoyan Sun, Wuguang Lu, Qingyun Wei, Juan Ye, Xueting Cai, Chunping Hu, Xiaoyang Yin and Peng Cao

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:326

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The IL-17 family cytokines are potent drivers of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We and others have shown that IL-17 mainly signals to tumor cells to promote CRC, but the underlying mechanism remains uncl...

    Authors: Ju Chen, Xiaoyang Ye, Elise Pitmon, Mengqian Lu, Jun Wan, Evan R. Jellison, Adam J. Adler, Anthony T. Vella and Kepeng Wang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:324

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Tumors that lack pre-existing immune infiltration respond poorly to T cell checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. These cancers often surround themselves with high densities of suppressive myeloid stroma while exc...

    Authors: Matthew J. Reilley, Brittany Morrow, Casey R. Ager, Arthur Liu, David S. Hong and Michael A. Curran

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:323

    Content type: Short report

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  8. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine efficacy is directly related to the efficiency of DC migration to the lymph node after delivery to the patient. We discovered that a naturally occurring metabolite, sarcosine, incre...

    Authors: Farhad Dastmalchi, Aida Karachi, Changlin Yang, Hassan Azari, Elias Joseph Sayour, Anjelika Dechkovskaia, Alexander Loren Vlasak, Megan Ellen Saia, Rolando Eladio Lovaton, Duane Anthony Mitchell and Maryam Rahman

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:321

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint is a central mediator of immunosuppression in the tumor immune microenvironment (TME) and is primarily associated with IFN-g signaling. To characterize other factors regulating PD-L1 ...

    Authors: Shuming Chen, George A. Crabill, Theresa S. Pritchard, Tracee L. McMiller, Ping Wei, Drew M. Pardoll, Fan Pan and Suzanne L. Topalian

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:305

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Despite chemo-induction therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), the vast majority of patients with Multiple Myeloma (MM) relapse within 7 years and the disease remains incurable. Adoptive Allo...

    Authors: S. Yado, G. Luboshits, O. Hazan, R. Or and M. A. Firer

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:301

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Accumulating studies suggest that targeting epigenetic modifications could improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Here, we inves...

    Authors: Gang Xiao, Li-Lian Jin, Chao-Qun Liu, Yong-Chun Wang, Ya-Ming Meng, Zhong-Guo Zhou, Jing Chen, Xing-Juan Yu, Yao-Jun Zhang, Jing Xu and Limin Zheng

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:300

    Content type: Research article

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  12. While cancer immunotherapies including checkpoint blockade antibodies, adoptive T cell therapy, and even some vaccines have given rise to major clinical responses with durability in many cases, a subset of pat...

    Authors: Jonathan A. Trujillo, Jason J. Luke, Yuanyuan Zha, Jeremy P. Segal, Lauren L. Ritterhouse, Stefani Spranger, Karen Matijevich and Thomas F. Gajewski

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:295

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The efficacy of PD-(L)1 blockade depends on the composition of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) and is generally higher in tumors with pre-existing cytotoxic T cells (CTL) than in those with low CTL nu...

    Authors: Anne Catherine Bretz, Ulrike Parnitzke, Kerstin Kronthaler, Tobias Dreker, René Bartz, Frank Hermann, Astrid Ammendola, Tanja Wulff and Svetlana Hamm

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:294

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The most common metastatic lesions of prostate cancer are in bone and can be classified into three distinct pathology subtypes: lytic, blastic, and an indeterminate mixture of both. We investigated a cohort of...

    Authors: Claire L. Ihle, Meredith D. Provera, Desiree M. Straign, E. Erin Smith, Susan M. Edgerton, Adrie Van Bokhoven, M. Scott Lucia and Philip Owens

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:293

    Content type: Short report

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  15. The tumor microenvironment (TME) combines features of regulatory cytokines and immune cell populations to evade the recognition by the immune system. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) comprise population...

    Authors: Philipp Metzger, Sabrina V. Kirchleitner, Michael Kluge, Lars M. Koenig, Christine Hörth, Carlotta A. Rambuscheck, Daniel Böhmer, Julia Ahlfeld, Sebastian Kobold, Caroline C. Friedel, Stefan Endres, Max Schnurr and Peter Duewell

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:288

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) emerged as a novel class of drugs for the treatment of a broad spectrum of malignancies. ICIs can produce durable antitumor responses but they are also associated with immun...

    Authors: Yinghong Zhai, Xiaofei Ye, Fangyuan Hu, Jinfang Xu, Xiaojing Guo, Yonglong Zhuang and Jia He

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:286

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Affinity-optimized T cell receptor (TCR)-engineered lymphocytes targeting tumor antigens can mediate potent antitumor responses in cancer patients, but also bear substantial risks for off-target toxicities. Mo...

    Authors: Minh Ngoc Duong, Efe Erdes, Michael Hebeisen and Nathalie Rufer

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:284

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The role of tumor-infiltrating B-cells (TIBs) and intratumorally-produced antibodies in cancer-immunity interactions essentially remains terra incognita. In particular, it remains unexplored how driver mutations ...

    Authors: O. I. Isaeva, G. V. Sharonov, E. O. Serebrovskaya, M. A. Turchaninova, A. R. Zaretsky, M. Shugay and D. M. Chudakov

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:279

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The interplay between the immune system and tumor progression is well recognized. However, current human breast cancer immunophenotyping studies are mostly focused on primary tumors with metastatic breast canc...

    Authors: Li Zhu, Jessica L. Narloch, Sayali Onkar, Marion Joy, Gloria Broadwater, Catherine Luedke, Allison Hall, Rim Kim, Katherine Pogue-Geile, Sarah Sammons, Naema Nayyar, Ugonma Chukwueke, Priscilla K. Brastianos, Carey K. Anders, Adam C. Soloff, Dario A. A. Vignali…

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:265

    Content type: Short report

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  20. Standard treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with high morbidity, whereas immunotherapeutic approaches using PD-1:PD-L1 checkpoint blockade only show moderate response rate...

    Authors: Kamila Hladíková, Vladimír Koucký, Jan Bouček, Jan Laco, Marek Grega, Miroslav Hodek, Michal Zábrodský, Milan Vošmik, Kateřina Rozkošová, Hana Vošmiková, Petr Čelakovský, Viktor Chrobok, Aleš Ryška, Radek Špíšek and Anna Fialová

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:261

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Natural killer (NK) cells are important anti-tumor cells of our innate immune system. Their anti-cancer activity is mediated through interaction of a wide array of activating and inhibitory receptors with thei...

    Authors: B. Martín-Antonio, G. Suñe, A. Najjar, L. Perez-Amill, A. Antoñana-Vildosola, M. Castella, S. León, M. Velasco-de Andrés, F. Lozano, E. Lozano, C. Bueno, J. M. Estanyol, C. Muñoz-Pinedo, S. N. Robinson and A. Urbano-Ispizua

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:259

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to...

    Authors: Beatris Mastelic-Gavillet, Blanca Navarro Rodrigo, Laure Décombaz, Haiping Wang, Giuseppe Ercolano, Rita Ahmed, Leyder Elena Lozano, Angela Ianaro, Laurent Derré, Massimo Valerio, Thomas Tawadros, Patrice Jichlinski, Tu Nguyen-Ngoc, Daniel E. Speiser, Grégory Verdeil, Nicolas Gestermann…

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:257

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Programmed cell death 1 inhibitors have revolutionized therapy for cancer by their outstanding effectiveness. However, they may cause adverse effects, among which inflammatory myopathy is one of the most disab...

    Authors: Shiro Matsubara, Morinobu Seki, Shigeaki Suzuki, Takashi Komori and Mikio Takamori

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:256

    Content type: Short report

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  24. The US is experiencing an epidemic of HPV+ oropharyngeal cancers (OPC), the rates and burden of which now exceed that for cervical cancer. Immunotherapy targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) on tumor-infiltrating l...

    Authors: Stephanie Dorta-Estremera, Venkatesh L. Hegde, Ravaen B. Slay, Rachel Sun, Ananta V. Yanamandra, Courtney Nicholas, Sita Nookala, Gloria Sierra, Michael A. Curran and K. Jagannadha Sastry

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:252

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Cancer immunotherapy has generated significant excitement, mainly as a result of the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The blockade of PD-1 or its ligand with antibodies has resulted in impressive c...

    Authors: Jing Shi, Chen Chen, Rui Ju, Qingzhu Wang, Juan Li, Lei Guo, Caiying Ye and Dechang Zhang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:246

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has been suggested to consist of three subtypes; HPV-positive, HPV-negative mutated TP53 or HPV-negative TP53 wildtype, with different clinical courses. To analyze the immune...

    Authors: Kim E. Kortekaas, Saskia J. Santegoets, Ziena Abdulrahman, Vanessa J. van Ham, Marij van der Tol, Ilina Ehsan, Helena C. van Doorn, Tjalling Bosse, Mariëtte I. E. van Poelgeest and Sjoerd H. van der Burg

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:236

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Insufficient co-stimulation accounts for a great deal of the suboptimal activation of cytotoxic CD8 T cells (CTLs) and presumably unsatisfactory clinical expectation of PD1/PD-L1 therapy. Tumor-derived soluble...

    Authors: Jinyu Zhang, Pablo Saenz-lopez Larrocha, Bin Zhang, Derek Wainwright, Payal Dhar and Jennifer D. Wu

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:223

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Efficient cancer therapy is sought not only for primary tumor treatment but also for the prevention of metastatic cancer growth. Immunotherapy has been shown to prevent cancer metastasis by inducing antigen-sp...

    Authors: Li Xu, Wei Zhang, Hae-Bin Park, Minseok Kwak, Junghwan Oh, Peter C. W. Lee and Jun-O Jin

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:220

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The clinical benefit of immunotherapeutic approaches against cancer has been well established although complete responses are only observed in a minority of patients. Combination immunotherapy offers an attrac...

    Authors: Guillaume Beyrend, Esmé van der Gracht, Ayse Yilmaz, Suzanne van Duikeren, Marcel Camps, Thomas Höllt, Anna Vilanova, Vincent van Unen, Frits Koning, Noel F. C. C. de Miranda, Ramon Arens and Ferry Ossendorp

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:217

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for solid tumors, including those targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), have shown impressive clinical efficacy,...

    Authors: Jared M. Newton, Aurelie Hanoteau, Hsuan-Chen Liu, Angelina Gaspero, Falguni Parikh, Robyn D. Gartrell-Corrado, Thomas D. Hart, Damya Laoui, Jo A. Van Ginderachter, Neeraja Dharmaraj, William C. Spanos, Yvonne Saenger, Simon Young and Andrew G. Sikora

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:216

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Oncolytic viruses preferentially replicate in tumors as compared to normal tissue and promote immunogenic cell death and induction of host systemic anti-tumor immunity. HSV-1 was chosen for further development...

    Authors: Suzanne Thomas, Linta Kuncheria, Victoria Roulstone, Joan N. Kyula, David Mansfield, Praveen K. Bommareddy, Henry Smith, Howard L. Kaufman, Kevin J. Harrington and Robert S. Coffin

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:214

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer worldwide. The tumor microenvironment plays a key role in promoting the occurrence of chemoresistance in solid cancers. Effective targets to ov...

    Authors: Dan Wang, Li Yang, Weina Yu, Qian Wu, Jingyao Lian, Feng Li, Shasha Liu, Aitian Li, Zhiang He, Jinbo Liu, Zhenqiang Sun, Weitang Yuan and Yi Zhang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:215

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a critical regulator of T cell function, contributing to immune tolerance. Upregulation of IDO1 has been found in many cancer types; however, the regulatory mechanisms a...

    Authors: Qiong Lou, Ruixian Liu, Xiangling Yang, Weiqian Li, Lanlan Huang, Lili Wei, Huiliu Tan, Nanlin Xiang, Kawo Chan, Junxiong Chen and Huanliang Liu

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:210

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Blocking programmed death-1 (PD-1) is considered to be a promising strategy to improve T cell function, and this is being explored in many ongoing clinical trials. In fact, our knowledge about PD-1 is primaril...

    Authors: Jianshu Wei, Can Luo, Yao Wang, Yelei Guo, Hanren Dai, Chuan Tong, Dongdong Ti, Zhiqiang Wu and Weidong Han

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:209

    Content type: Research article

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  35. NKT cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycolipid is presented to natural killer T (NKT) cells by most antigen-presenting cells through CD1d m...

    Authors: Sourav Paul, Sushanta Chhatar, Amrita Mishra and Girdhari Lal

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:208

    Content type: Research article

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  36. One of the mechanisms by which tumors evade immune surveillance is through shedding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A and B (MICA/B) from their cell surface. MICA/B ...

    Authors: Changchun Du, Jack Bevers III, Ryan Cook, T. Noelle Lombana, Kamalakannan Rajasekaran, Marissa Matsumoto, Christoph Spiess, Jeong M. Kim and Zhengmao Ye

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:207

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Interleukin(IL)-30/IL-27p28 production by Prostate Cancer (PC) Stem-Like Cells (SLCs) has proven, in murine models, to be critical to tumor onset and progression. In PC patients, IL-30 expression by leukocytes...

    Authors: Carlo Sorrentino, Zhinan Yin, Stefania Ciummo, Paola Lanuti, Li-Fan Lu, Marco Marchisio, Matteo Bellone and Emma Di Carlo

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:201

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Despite major advancements in immunotherapy among a number of solid tumors, response rates among ovarian cancer patients remain modest. Standard treatment for ovarian cancer is still surgery followed by taxane...

    Authors: Christina A. Hartl, Adrian Bertschi, Regina Bou Puerto, Carolin Andresen, Emily M. Cheney, Elizabeth A. Mittendorf, Jennifer L. Guerriero and Michael S. Goldberg

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:199

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Innate immune cells such as macrophages are abundantly present within malignant ascites, where they share the microenvironment with ovarian cancer stem cells (CSC).

    Authors: Shreya Raghavan, Pooja Mehta, Yuying Xie, Yu L. Lei and Geeta Mehta

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:190

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Micro(mi)RNAs are increasingly recognized as central regulators of immune cell function. While it has been predicted that miRNAs have multiple targets, the majority of these predictions still await experimenta...

    Authors: Martin Hart, Barbara Walch-Rückheim, Lena Krammes, Tim Kehl, Stefanie Rheinheimer, Tanja Tänzer, Birgit Glombitza, Martina Sester, Hans-Peter Lenhof, Andreas Keller and Eckart Meese

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:187

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Limitations to current therapies for treating non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma include relapse, toxicity and high cost. Thus, there remains a need for novel therapies. Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy has become a prom...

    Authors: Minjun Yu, Iris Scherwitzl, Silvana Opp, Aristotelis Tsirigos and Daniel Meruelo

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:185

    Content type: Research article

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  42. CD4+ T cells are critical effectors of anti-tumor immunity, but how tumor cells influence CD4+ T cell effector function is not fully understood. Tumor cell-released autophagosomes (TRAPs) are being recognized as ...

    Authors: Yong-Qiang Chen, Peng-Cheng Li, Ning Pan, Rong Gao, Zhi-Fa Wen, Tian-Yu Zhang, Fang Huang, Fang-Yuan Wu, Xi-Long Ou, Jin-Ping Zhang, Xue-Jun Zhu, Hong-Ming Hu, Kang Chen, Yun-Lang Cai and Li-Xin Wang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:178

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like erlotinib are effective for treating patients with EGFR mutant lung cancer; however, drug resistance inevitably emerges. Approaches t...

    Authors: Deborah Ayeni, Braden Miller, Alexandra Kuhlmann, Ping-Chih Ho, Camila Robles-Oteiza, Mmaserame Gaefele, Stellar Levy, Fernando J. de Miguel, Curtis Perry, Tianxia Guan, Gerald Krystal, William Lockwood, Daniel Zelterman, Robert Homer, Zongzhi Liu, Susan Kaech…

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:172

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Traditional therapies fail to cure most glioblastoma patients and the 5-year survival rate is less than 10%, highlighting need for new therapeutic approaches. The natural killer group 2 member D ligands (NKG2D...

    Authors: Dong Yang, Bin Sun, Hongjiu Dai, Wenxuan Li, Lan Shi, Peixian Zhang, Shirong Li and Xudong Zhao

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:171

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Radiotherapy (RT) induces an immunogenic antitumor response, but also some immunosuppressive barriers. It remains unclear how different fractionation protocols can modulate the immune microenvironment. Clinica...

    Authors: Mathieu Grapin, Corentin Richard, Emeric Limagne, Romain Boidot, Véronique Morgand, Aurélie Bertaut, Valentin Derangere, Pierre-Antoine Laurent, Marion Thibaudin, Jean David Fumet, Gilles Crehange, François Ghiringhelli and Céline Mirjolet

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:160

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Type I interferons (IFN-I) have recently emerged as key regulators of tumor response to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. However, IFN-I function in cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in the tumor microenvironment i...

    Authors: Chunwan Lu, John D. Klement, Mohammed L. Ibrahim, Wei Xiao, Priscilla S. Redd, Asha Nayak-Kapoor, Gang Zhou and Kebin Liu

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:157

    Content type: Research article

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  47. PD-1 inhibitors are approved for multiple malignancies and function by stimulating T cells. However, the role of B cells in the anti-tumor activity of these drugs is unknown, as is their activity in patients w...

    Authors: William Damsky, Lucia Jilaveanu, Noel Turner, Curtis Perry, Christopher Zito, Mary Tomayko, Jonathan Leventhal, Kevan Herold, Eric Meffre, Marcus Bosenberg and Harriet M. Kluger

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:153

    Content type: Short report

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  48. T-cell mediated immunotherapy brought clinical success for many cancer patients. Nonetheless, downregulation of MHC class I antigen presentation, frequently occurring in solid cancers, limits the efficacy of t...

    Authors: Koen A. Marijt, Marjolein Sluijter, Laura Blijleven, Sofie H. Tolmeijer, Ferenc A. Scheeren, Sjoerd H. van der Burg and Thorbald van Hall

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:152

    Content type: Research article

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  49. Binding of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor to its ligands (PD-L1/2) transduces inhibitory signals that promote exhaustion of activated T cells. Blockade of the PD-1 pathway is widely used for cancer tre...

    Authors: Jesús Ogando, María Eugenia Sáez, Javier Santos, Cristina Nuevo-Tapioles, Marta Gut, Anna Esteve-Codina, Simon Heath, Antonio González-Pérez, José M. Cuezva, Rosa Ana Lacalle and Santos Mañes

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:151

    Content type: Research article

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  50. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the major component of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Macrophages are broadly categorized as M1 or M2 types, and TAMs have been shown to express an M2-like phenotype. ...

    Authors: Chanju Lee, Hyunju Jeong, Younghyeon Bae, Kyungmoon Shin, Sinwoo Kang, Hwikyung Kim, Jayoung Oh and Hyunsu Bae

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:147

    Content type: Research article

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