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Case Reports

Section edited by Alfred Zippelius, MD

Reports on unusual or unexpected clinical cases that expand the field of general medical knowledge. Includes information on an unexpected association between diseases or symptoms, an unexpected event in the course of observing or treating a patient, findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis of the disease or an adverse effect, unique or rare features of the disease, and/or a unique therapeutic approach.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, is an immune checkpoint inhibitor particularly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Immune-related...

    Authors: Saade Anastasia, Mansuet-Lupo Audrey, Arrondeau Jennifer, Thibault Constance, Mirabel Mariana, Goldwasser François, Oudard Stéphane and Weiss Laurence

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:266

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  2. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved clinical outcomes including survival in several malignancies but have also been associated with a range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Neurological irAEs a...

    Authors: Catherine A. Gao, Urs M. Weber, Aldo J. Peixoto and Sarah A. Weiss

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:262

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Hypophysitis is a well-recognized immune-related adverse event in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer. Some anterior pituitary hormones may recover; however, secondary adrenal insuffi...

    Authors: Sahityasri Thapi, Amanda Leiter, Matthew Galsky and Emily J. Gallagher

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:248

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS-2) is a rare constellation of autoimmune hypoadrenalism, thyroid dysfunction and/or type 1 diabetes (T1DM), usually occurring in the 3rd or 4th decades and associ...

    Authors: Ashray Gunjur, Oliver Klein, Damien Kee and Jonathan Cebon

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:241

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Angiosarcoma is an uncommon endothelial malignancy and a highly aggressive soft tissue sarcoma. Due to its infiltrative nature, successful management of localized angiosarcoma is often challenging. Systemic ch...

    Authors: Vaia Florou, Andrew E. Rosenberg, Eric Wieder, Krishna V. Komanduri, Despina Kolonias, Mohamed Uduman, John C. Castle, Jennifer S. Buell, Jonathan C. Trent and Breelyn A. Wilky

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:213

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Late-stage or recurrent intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) patients exhibit poor prognosis due to limited sensitivity to chemotherapy or radiotherapy and coexistence of multiple lesions. Programmed cell dea...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Liu, Jianfei Yao, Lele Song, Sujing Zhang, Tanxiao Huang and Yu Li

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:204

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  7. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have now become standard of care treatment for many malignancies. ICIs are associated with unique immune mediated adverse events (irAEs) due to dysregulation of immune activ...

    Authors: Dana Alsaadi, Neil J. Shah, Aline Charabaty and Michael B. Atkins

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:203

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  8. Content type: Case report

    In solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, transplant rejection during immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment for cancer is a clinical problem. Donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) can be detected in b...

    Authors: Daan P. Hurkmans, Jeroen G. H. P. Verhoeven, Kitty de Leur, Karin Boer, Arjen Joosse, Carla C. Baan, Jan H. von der Thüsen, Ron H. N. van Schaik, Ron H. J. Mathijssen, Astrid A. M. van der Veldt and Dennis A. Hesselink

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:182

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  9. Content type: Case report

    High response rates of metastatic melanoma have been reported upon immune checkpoint inhibition by PD-1 blockade alone or in combination with CTLA-4 inhibitors. However, the majority of patients with a primary...

    Authors: Valerie Glutsch, Franziska Grän, Judith Weber, Anja Gesierich, Matthias Goebeler and Bastian Schilling

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:181

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Compared to conventional chemotherapy, Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are known to have a distinct toxicity profile commonly identified as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These irAEs that are believ...

    Authors: Abdul Rafeh Naqash, Ebenezer Appah, Li V. Yang, Mahvish Muzaffar, Mona A. Marie, Justin D. Mccallen, Shravanti Macherla, Darla Liles and Paul R. Walker

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:169

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  11. Content type: Case report

    In non-small cell lung cancer, response rates to chemotherapy given after immune checkpoint inhibitors has been reported to be higher compared to response rates to chemotherapy given before immune checkpoint i...

    Authors: Rayan Alsuwaigh, Joycelyn Lee, Gloria Chan, Cheng Ean Chee and Su Pin Choo

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:162

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) correlates with a worse prognosis, but whether it also predicts responsiveness to anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy remains unclear. ...

    Authors: Joseph Vento, Aditi Mulgaonkar, Layton Woolford, Kien Nham, Alana Christie, Aditya Bagrodia, Alberto Diaz de Leon, Raquibul Hannan, Isaac Bowman, Renee M. McKay, Payal Kapur, Guiyang Hao, Xiankai Sun and James Brugarolas

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:144

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  13. Content type: Case report

    PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are promising approaches for advanced Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). Nevertheless, these inhibitors bear a high risk for induction of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), particularly fla...

    Authors: Anne Zaremba, Eleftheria Chorti, Finja Jockenhöfer, Saskia Bolz, Selma Sirin, Martin Glas, Jürgen C. Becker, Selma Ugurel, Alexander Roesch, Dirk Schadendorf, Elisabeth Livingstone, Tim Hagenacker and Lisa Zimmer

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:141

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  14. Content type: Case report

    Despite ground-breaking clinical success in the treatment of different cancers, immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause profound inflammatory and immune-related adverse events. Autoimmune inflammatory arthritis...

    Authors: Sang T. Kim, Mohamad Bittar, Hyun J. Kim, Sattva S. Neelapu, Amado J. Zurita, Roza Nurieva and Maria E. Suarez-Almazor

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:126

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Insertion–deletion mutations (indels) may generate more tumour-specific neoantigens with high affinity to major histocompatibility complex class I. A high indel ratio is also related to a good response to prog...

    Authors: Minghao Sui, Yu Li, Hongguang Wang, Ying Luo, Tao Wan, Xun Wang, Bingyang Hu, Yanshuang Cheng, Xianrong Lv, Xianlei Xin, Qiang Xu, Guan Wang and Shichun Lu

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:125

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Pneumonitis is a potential consequence of both lung-directed radiation and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB), particularly treatment with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. Significant morbidity and mortality can result, a...

    Authors: Jonathan D. Schoenfeld, Mizuki Nishino, Mariano Severgnini, Michael Manos, Raymond H. Mak and F. Stephen Hodi

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:112

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  17. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have provided more options in the treatment of lung cancer. However, ICIs can cause several unfavorable reactions generally referred to as immune-related adverse effects.

    Authors: Osamu Honjo, Terufumi Kubo, Fumiko Sugaya, Takahiro Nishizaka, Koji Kato, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Hiroki Takahashi and Toshihiko Torigoe

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:97

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Clinically localized renal cell carcinoma is treated primarily with surgery followed by observation or adjuvant sunitinib in selected high-risk patients. The checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapeutic agents nivol...

    Authors: Craig Labbate, Ken Hatogai, Ryan Werntz, Walter M. Stadler, Gary D. Steinberg, Scott Eggener and Randy F. Sweis

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:66

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Balancing the potential for durable remissions with autoimmune-like toxicities is a key clinical challenge in the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI). Certain toxicities are associated with an increased ...

    Authors: Suthee Rapisuwon, Benjamin Izar, Cory Batenchuk, Alexandre Avila, Shaolin Mei, Peter Sorger, Jerry M. Parks, Sarah J. Cooper, David Wagner, Jay C. Zeck, Aline J. Charabaty and Michael B. Atkins

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:61

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  20. Content type: Case report

    Pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed cell death-1 protein monoclonal antibody, is effective for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors such as pembrolizumab induc...

    Authors: Teppei Sugano, Masahiro Seike, Yoko Funasaka, Mai Yoshida, Ryoko Takayama, Ken Okamura, Asuka Nakanishi, Toru Tanaka, Susumu Takeuchi, Rintaro Noro, Yuji Minegishi, Kaoru Kubota, Hidehisa Saeki and Akihiko Gemma

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:59

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  21. Content type: Case report

    Treatment with a combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 targeted checkpoint inhibition has improved outcome of melanoma patients and led to durable remissions but is also associated with significant toxicities. Endocr...

    Authors: Beckey Trinh, Guacimara Ortega Sanchez, Petra Herzig and Heinz Läubli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:52

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  22. Content type: Case report

    The aggressive form of Mantle cell non-hodgkin B cell lymphoma (MCL) has a dismal prognosis. Dual targeting BTK and BCL2 with ibrutinib and venetoclax has improved outcomes in MCL patients who were predicted n...

    Authors: Tongjuan Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dan Peng, Xia Mao, Xiaoxi Zhou and Jianfeng Zhou

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:51

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), used to treat different advanced malignancies, are associated with a wide range of immune-related adverse reactions (irAEs) that deserve close monitoring of patients. Gast...

    Authors: Hao Chi Zhang, Wenyi Luo and Yinghong Wang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:47

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Alongside its clinical success, checkpoint blockade has also given rise to a set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). In addition to causing considerable morbidity and even mortality, irAEs may limit the ...

    Authors: Elisa Bello, Justine V. Cohen, Mari Mino-Kenudson and Michael Dougan

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:41

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Several predictive biomarkers are currently approved or are under investigation for the selection of patients for checkpoint blockade. Tumor PD-L1 expression is used for stratification of non-small cell lung (...

    Authors: Kellie N. Smith, Nicolas J. Llosa, Tricia R. Cottrell, Nicholas Siegel, Hongni Fan, Prerna Suri, Hok Yee Chan, Haidan Guo, Teniola Oke, Anas H. Awan, Franco Verde, Ludmila Danilova, Valsamo Anagnostou, Ada J. Tam, Brandon S. Luber, Bjarne R. Bartlett…

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:40

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:63

  26. Content type: Case report

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive and fatal tumor. CCA occurs in the epithelial cells of bile ducts. Due to increasing incidences, CCA accounts for 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. In add...

    Authors: Mohammed Alnaggar, Yan Xu, Jingxia Li, Junyi He, Jibing Chen, Man Li, Qingling Wu, Li Lin, Yingqing Liang, Xiaohua Wang, Jiawei Li, Yi Hu, Yan Chen, Kecheng Xu, Yangzhe Wu and Zhinan Yin

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:36

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  27. Content type: Case report

    With the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and targeted treatments (TT), there have been unprecedented response rates and survival in advanced melanoma, but the optimal sequencing of these two treatments ...

    Authors: Abdul Rafeh Naqash, Danielle M. File, Carolyn M. Ziemer, Young E. Whang, Paula Landman, Paul B. Googe and Frances A. Collichio

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:4

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  28. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies. The original studies that demonstrated the efficacy of ICPIs excluded patients actively being tre...

    Authors: Christopher C. Frohne, Ernesto M. Llano, Ashley Perkovic, Russell D. Cohen and Jason J. Luke

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:1

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  29. Content type: Case report

    The prevalence of esophageal stenosis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors in the context of induced immune mucositis and esophagitis is extremely rare.

    Authors: Alice Horisberger, Stefano La Rosa, Jean-Philippe Zurcher, Stefan Zimmermann, Francois Spertini, George Coukos and Michel Obeid

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:156

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Neurologic toxicities with immune therapy are rare, but can cause devastating and often permanent injury when they occur. Although there is increasing interest in the potential synergism between immune therapy...

    Authors: Victoria A. Chang, Daniel R. Simpson, Gregory A. Daniels and David E. Piccioni

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:153

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized treatment and improved survival in many cancers. However, since immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are potentially fatal, early recognition and prompt treatm...

    Authors: Cecilia Monge, Hoyoung Maeng, Alessandra Brofferio, Andrea B. Apolo, Bharath Sathya, Andrew E. Arai, James L. Gulley and Marijo Bilusic

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:150

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Novel approaches with checkpoint inhibitors in immunotherapy continue to be essential in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the low rate of primary response and the development of ac...

    Authors: Lucas C. Adam, Junaid Raja, Johannes M. Ludwig, Adebowale Adeniran, Scott N. Gettinger and Hyun S. Kim

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:147

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Currently, there is no established standard of care for patients with metastatic CSCC. Based on the mechanisms of CSCC carcinogenesis has been postulated that these tumors may be amenable to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.

    Authors: Leandro J. C. Oliveira, Aline B. L. Gongora, Felipe G. Barbosa, Carlos H. dos Anjos and Rodrigo R. Munhoz

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:130

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  34. Content type: Case report

    MMR-D pancreatic cancer have been reported to respond to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Here, we report the first case of acquired resistance to immunotherapy in MMR-D pancreatic cancer.

    Authors: Zishuo Ian Hu, Matthew D. Hellmann, Jedd D. Wolchok, Monika Vyas, Jinru Shia, Zsofia K. Stadler, Luis A. Diaz Jr and Eileen M. O’Reilly

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:127

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has radically changed the management of a broad spectrum of tumors. In contrast, only very limited information is available about the efficacy of these therapies...

    Authors: Francesco Sabbatino, Antonio Marra, Luigi Liguori, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Celeste Fusciello, Gerardo Botti, Soldano Ferrone and Stefano Pepe

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:126

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Immune-directed therapies have become front-line therapy for melanoma and are transforming the management of advanced disease. In refractory cases, multi-modal immunoncology (IO) approaches are being utilized,...

    Authors: David M. Miller, Ryan M. Trowbridge, Anupam Desai and Reed E. Drews

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:122

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  37. Content type: Case report

    The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is increasing in cancer therapy today. It is critical that treatment teams become familiar with the organ systems potentially impacted by immune-related adverse events a...

    Authors: Kendall F. Moseley, Jarushka Naidoo, Clifton O. Bingham, Michael A. Carducci, Patrick M. Forde, Geoffrey T. Gibney, Evan J. Lipson, Ami A. Shah, William H. Sharfman and Laura C. Cappelli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:104

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  38. Content type: Case report

    Malignant angiomyolipoma is an uncommon tumor of the class of perivasciular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas). These tumors are characteristically driven by deleterious mutations in the tumor suppressors TSC1 ...

    Authors: Michael Lattanzi, Fang-Ming Deng, Luis A. Chiriboga, Alisa N. Femia, Shane A. Meehan, Gopa Iyer, Martin H. Voss, Yuliya Sundatova, William C. Huang and Arjun V. Balar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:97

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone tumors in adults. Conventional chondrosarcoma represents around 85% of all chondrosarcomas and is notoriously difficult to treat with chemotherapy.

    Authors: Michael J. Wagner, Robert W. Ricciotti, Jose Mantilla, Elizabeth T. Loggers, Seth M. Pollack and Lee D. Cranmer

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:94

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  40. Content type: Case report

    The development of a new lesion in a patient with a complete remission to anti-PD-1 therapy is highly concerning for a drug resistant escape lesion. Here, we present a case of a 62-year-old patient with chemot...

    Authors: Johannes C. Melms, Rohit Thummalapalli, Kristin Shaw, Huihui Ye, Leo Tsai, Rupal S. Bhatt and Benjamin Izar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:89

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  41. Content type: Case report

    The development of pulmonary immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients undergoing PD-(L)1 targeted checkpoint inhibitors are rare, but may be life-threatening. While many published articles and guideli...

    Authors: Guacimara Ortega Sanchez, Kathleen Jahn, Spasenija Savic, Alfred Zippelius and Heinz Läubli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:85

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  42. Content type: Case report

    PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors are associated with several adverse events including a spectrum of immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). Neurologic irAEs are uncommon occurrences with varied presentations. We des...

    Authors: Christine A. Garcia, Alex El-Ali, Tanya J. Rath, Lydia C. Contis, Vikram Gorantla, Jan Drappatz and Diwakar Davar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:83

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  43. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the treatment of choice for several cancers and can be associated with remarkable clinical benefit, but can also cause serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Man...

    Authors: Jacob Appelbaum, David Wells, Joseph B. Hiatt, Gideon Steinbach, F. Marc Stewart, Hannah Thomas, Paul Nghiem, Raj P. Kapur, John A. Thompson and Shailender Bhatia

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:82

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Treatment of metastatic melanoma patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors is an important standard of care. Side effects are due to immune activation, can affect virtually all organ systems, and are occasion...

    Authors: Andrew Hantel, Brooke Gabster, Jason X. Cheng, Harvey Golomb and Thomas F. Gajewski

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:73

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Use of anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) has been successful in treating many types of cancers. Despite its promising efficacy, immune-related adverse events are still a major concern. Immune-related ca...

    Authors: Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su and San-Chi Chen

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:72

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  46. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have shown promising results in many solid tumors. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of these drugs in HIV infected patients as they have traditionally been ...

    Authors: Muhammad Husnain, Wungki Park, Juan Carlos Ramos, Thomas E. Johnson, Joseph Chan, Arvind Dasari, Raja Mudad and Peter J. Hosein

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:66

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