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Case Reports

Section edited by Alfred Zippelius, MD

Reports on unusual or unexpected clinical cases that expand the field of general medical knowledge. Includes information on an unexpected association between diseases or symptoms, an unexpected event in the course of observing or treating a patient, findings that shed new light on the possible pathogenesis of the disease or an adverse effect, unique or rare features of the disease, and/or a unique therapeutic approach.

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  1. Content type: Case report

    Treatment with a combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 targeted checkpoint inhibition has improved outcome of melanoma patients and led to durable remissions but is also associated with significant toxicities. Endocr...

    Authors: Beckey Trinh, Guacimara Ortega Sanchez, Petra Herzig and Heinz Läubli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:52

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  2. Content type: Case report

    The aggressive form of Mantle cell non-hodgkin B cell lymphoma (MCL) has a dismal prognosis. Dual targeting BTK and BCL2 with ibrutinib and venetoclax has improved outcomes in MCL patients who were predicted n...

    Authors: Tongjuan Li, Yuanyuan Zhang, Dan Peng, Xia Mao, Xiaoxi Zhou and Jianfeng Zhou

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:51

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  3. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs), used to treat different advanced malignancies, are associated with a wide range of immune-related adverse reactions (irAEs) that deserve close monitoring of patients. Gast...

    Authors: Hao Chi Zhang, Wenyi Luo and Yinghong Wang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:47

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  4. Content type: Case report

    Alongside its clinical success, checkpoint blockade has also given rise to a set of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). In addition to causing considerable morbidity and even mortality, irAEs may limit the ...

    Authors: Elisa Bello, Justine V. Cohen, Mari Mino-Kenudson and Michael Dougan

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:41

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  5. Content type: Case report

    Several predictive biomarkers are currently approved or are under investigation for the selection of patients for checkpoint blockade. Tumor PD-L1 expression is used for stratification of non-small cell lung (...

    Authors: Kellie N. Smith, Nicolas J. Llosa, Tricia R. Cottrell, Nicholas Siegel, Hongni Fan, Prerna Suri, Hok Yee Chan, Haidan Guo, Teniola Oke, Anas H. Awan, Franco Verde, Ludmila Danilova, Valsamo Anagnostou, Ada J. Tam, Brandon S. Luber, Bjarne R. Bartlett…

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:40

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  6. Content type: Case report

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly aggressive and fatal tumor. CCA occurs in the epithelial cells of bile ducts. Due to increasing incidences, CCA accounts for 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. In add...

    Authors: Mohammed Alnaggar, Yan Xu, Jingxia Li, Junyi He, Jibing Chen, Man Li, Qingling Wu, Li Lin, Yingqing Liang, Xiaohua Wang, Jiawei Li, Yi Hu, Yan Chen, Kecheng Xu, Yangzhe Wu and Zhinan Yin

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:36

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  7. Content type: Case report

    With the advent of immune-checkpoint inhibitors and targeted treatments (TT), there have been unprecedented response rates and survival in advanced melanoma, but the optimal sequencing of these two treatments ...

    Authors: Abdul Rafeh Naqash, Danielle M. File, Carolyn M. Ziemer, Young E. Whang, Paula Landman, Paul B. Googe and Frances A. Collichio

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:4

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  8. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) are increasingly being used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies. The original studies that demonstrated the efficacy of ICPIs excluded patients actively being tre...

    Authors: Christopher C. Frohne, Ernesto M. Llano, Ashley Perkovic, Russell D. Cohen and Jason J. Luke

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2019 7:1

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  9. Content type: Case report

    The prevalence of esophageal stenosis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors in the context of induced immune mucositis and esophagitis is extremely rare.

    Authors: Alice Horisberger, Stefano La Rosa, Jean-Philippe Zurcher, Stefan Zimmermann, Francois Spertini, George Coukos and Michel Obeid

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:156

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  10. Content type: Case report

    Neurologic toxicities with immune therapy are rare, but can cause devastating and often permanent injury when they occur. Although there is increasing interest in the potential synergism between immune therapy...

    Authors: Victoria A. Chang, Daniel R. Simpson, Gregory A. Daniels and David E. Piccioni

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:153

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  11. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized treatment and improved survival in many cancers. However, since immune-related adverse events (irAEs) are potentially fatal, early recognition and prompt treatm...

    Authors: Cecilia Monge, Hoyoung Maeng, Alessandra Brofferio, Andrea B. Apolo, Bharath Sathya, Andrew E. Arai, James L. Gulley and Marijo Bilusic

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:150

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  12. Content type: Case report

    Novel approaches with checkpoint inhibitors in immunotherapy continue to be essential in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the low rate of primary response and the development of ac...

    Authors: Lucas C. Adam, Junaid Raja, Johannes M. Ludwig, Adebowale Adeniran, Scott N. Gettinger and Hyun S. Kim

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:147

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  13. Content type: Case report

    Currently, there is no established standard of care for patients with metastatic CSCC. Based on the mechanisms of CSCC carcinogenesis has been postulated that these tumors may be amenable to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade.

    Authors: Leandro J. C. Oliveira, Aline B. L. Gongora, Felipe G. Barbosa, Carlos H. dos Anjos and Rodrigo R. Munhoz

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:130

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  14. Content type: Case report

    MMR-D pancreatic cancer have been reported to respond to checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Here, we report the first case of acquired resistance to immunotherapy in MMR-D pancreatic cancer.

    Authors: Zishuo Ian Hu, Matthew D. Hellmann, Jedd D. Wolchok, Monika Vyas, Jinru Shia, Zsofia K. Stadler, Luis A. Diaz Jr and Eileen M. O’Reilly

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:127

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  15. Content type: Case report

    Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has radically changed the management of a broad spectrum of tumors. In contrast, only very limited information is available about the efficacy of these therapies...

    Authors: Francesco Sabbatino, Antonio Marra, Luigi Liguori, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Celeste Fusciello, Gerardo Botti, Soldano Ferrone and Stefano Pepe

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:126

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  16. Content type: Case report

    Immune-directed therapies have become front-line therapy for melanoma and are transforming the management of advanced disease. In refractory cases, multi-modal immunoncology (IO) approaches are being utilized,...

    Authors: David M. Miller, Ryan M. Trowbridge, Anupam Desai and Reed E. Drews

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:122

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  17. Content type: Case report

    The use of immune checkpoint inhibitors is increasing in cancer therapy today. It is critical that treatment teams become familiar with the organ systems potentially impacted by immune-related adverse events a...

    Authors: Kendall F. Moseley, Jarushka Naidoo, Clifton O. Bingham, Michael A. Carducci, Patrick M. Forde, Geoffrey T. Gibney, Evan J. Lipson, Ami A. Shah, William H. Sharfman and Laura C. Cappelli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:104

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  18. Content type: Case report

    Malignant angiomyolipoma is an uncommon tumor of the class of perivasciular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas). These tumors are characteristically driven by deleterious mutations in the tumor suppressors TSC1 ...

    Authors: Michael Lattanzi, Fang-Ming Deng, Luis A. Chiriboga, Alisa N. Femia, Shane A. Meehan, Gopa Iyer, Martin H. Voss, Yuliya Sundatova, William C. Huang and Arjun V. Balar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:97

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  19. Content type: Case report

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the most common malignant bone tumors in adults. Conventional chondrosarcoma represents around 85% of all chondrosarcomas and is notoriously difficult to treat with chemotherapy.

    Authors: Michael J. Wagner, Robert W. Ricciotti, Jose Mantilla, Elizabeth T. Loggers, Seth M. Pollack and Lee D. Cranmer

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:94

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  20. Content type: Case report

    The development of a new lesion in a patient with a complete remission to anti-PD-1 therapy is highly concerning for a drug resistant escape lesion. Here, we present a case of a 62-year-old patient with chemot...

    Authors: Johannes C. Melms, Rohit Thummalapalli, Kristin Shaw, Huihui Ye, Leo Tsai, Rupal S. Bhatt and Benjamin Izar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:89

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  21. Content type: Case report

    The development of pulmonary immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in patients undergoing PD-(L)1 targeted checkpoint inhibitors are rare, but may be life-threatening. While many published articles and guideli...

    Authors: Guacimara Ortega Sanchez, Kathleen Jahn, Spasenija Savic, Alfred Zippelius and Heinz Läubli

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:85

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  22. Content type: Case report

    PD-1 and CTLA-4 inhibitors are associated with several adverse events including a spectrum of immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). Neurologic irAEs are uncommon occurrences with varied presentations. We des...

    Authors: Christine A. Garcia, Alex El-Ali, Tanya J. Rath, Lydia C. Contis, Vikram Gorantla, Jan Drappatz and Diwakar Davar

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:83

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  23. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are the treatment of choice for several cancers and can be associated with remarkable clinical benefit, but can also cause serious immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Man...

    Authors: Jacob Appelbaum, David Wells, Joseph B. Hiatt, Gideon Steinbach, F. Marc Stewart, Hannah Thomas, Paul Nghiem, Raj P. Kapur, John A. Thompson and Shailender Bhatia

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:82

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  24. Content type: Case report

    Treatment of metastatic melanoma patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors is an important standard of care. Side effects are due to immune activation, can affect virtually all organ systems, and are occasion...

    Authors: Andrew Hantel, Brooke Gabster, Jason X. Cheng, Harvey Golomb and Thomas F. Gajewski

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:73

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  25. Content type: Case report

    Use of anti-programmed cell death-1 (anti-PD-1) has been successful in treating many types of cancers. Despite its promising efficacy, immune-related adverse events are still a major concern. Immune-related ca...

    Authors: Chien-Yi Hsu, Yu-Wen Su and San-Chi Chen

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:72

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  26. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have shown promising results in many solid tumors. There are limited data on the safety and efficacy of these drugs in HIV infected patients as they have traditionally been ...

    Authors: Muhammad Husnain, Wungki Park, Juan Carlos Ramos, Thomas E. Johnson, Joseph Chan, Arvind Dasari, Raja Mudad and Peter J. Hosein

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:66

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  27. Content type: Case report

    Sebaceous carcinoma is an aggressive adnexal skin tumor with a predilection for the eyelids and sebaceous glands of the head and neck.

    Authors: Evidio Domingo-Musibay, Paari Murugan, Alessio Giubellino, Sandeep Sharma, Daniel Steinberger, Jianling Yuan, Matthew A. Hunt, Emil Lou and Jeffrey S. Miller

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:58

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  28. Content type: Case report

    The treatment options for metastatic malignant melanoma have drastically changed recently,including the increased use of immunotherapeutic agents that offer significant responses. Accordingly, it hasbecome com...

    Authors: Joseph I. Clark, Shams Bufalino, Shruti Singh and Ewa Borys

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:53

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  29. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) target T cell inhibitory pathways that are responsible for cancer tolerance by down-modulating immune functions. ICI have revolutionized patients care with lung cancer. Never...

    Authors: Léa Paolini, Caroline Poli, Simon Blanchard, Thierry Urban, Anne Croué, Marie-Christine Rousselet, Sarah Le Roux, Nathalie Labarrière, Pascale Jeannin and José Hureaux

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:52

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  30. Content type: Case report

    Patients with metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma (mMCC) who experience disease progression on immunotherapy have limited additional standard options. Given evidence of synergism between radiation therapy (RT) an...

    Authors: Melody J. Xu, Susan Wu, Adil I. Daud, Siegrid S. Yu and Sue S. Yom

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:43

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  31. Content type: Case report

    Human papillomavirus-related small cell carcinoma of the head and neck is an extremely rare, aggressive subtype with poor outcomes. Therapeutic options are limited and are largely adopted from small cell lung ...

    Authors: Won Jin Ho, Lisa Rooper, Sarah Sagorsky and Hyunseok Kang

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:33

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  32. Content type: Case report

    Immunotherapy, in particular checkpoint blockade, has changed the clinical landscape of metastatic melanoma. Nonetheless, the majority of patients will either be primary refractory or progress over follow up. ...

    Authors: Zoë Blake, Douglas K. Marks, Robyn D. Gartrell, Thomas Hart, Patti Horton, Simon K. Cheng, Bret Taback, Basil A. Horst and Yvonne M. Saenger

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:25

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  33. Content type: Case report

    Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 checkpoint pathway have recently gained regulatory approval in numerous cancer types. With the widespread use of immune checkpoint therapies, varying patterns of responses an...

    Authors: Randy F. Sweis, Yuanyuan Zha, Lomax Pass, Brian Heiss, Tara Chongsuwat, Jason J. Luke, Thomas F. Gajewski and Russell Szmulewitz

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:24

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  34. Content type: Case report

    Immune checkpoint therapy has dramatically changed the landscape of cancer therapy, providing an efficacious and durable therapeutic option for patients with advanced-stage disease. However, dermatologic toxic...

    Authors: Michael T. Tetzlaff, Kelly C. Nelson, Adi Diab, Gregg A. Staerkel, Priyadharsini Nagarajan, Carlos A. Torres-Cabala, Beth A. Chasen, Jennifer A. Wargo, Victor G. Prieto, Rodabe N. Amaria and Jonathan L. Curry

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:14

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  35. Content type: Case report

    Uveal melanoma accounts for 85% of the ocular melanomas and has an increased risk of hematogenous spread, most commonly to the liver. After curative intent therapy like surgery and radiation, fifty percent of ...

    Authors: Muhammad Zubair Afzal, Rodwell Mabaera and Keisuke Shirai

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:13

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  36. Content type: Case report

    Immune check point inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as a new therapeutic paradigm for a variety of malignancies including metastatic melanoma. As the use of ICIs expand, immune-mediated adverse events are becomi...

    Authors: Amrita Padda, Elena Schiopu, Justin Sovich, Vincent Ma, Ajjai Alva and Leslie Fecher

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:12

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  37. Content type: Case report

    Ipilimumab is an FDA-approved anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody used in treatment of metastatic melanoma. We present an unusual neurological complication of Ipilimumab therapy and the diagnostic dilemma it caused.

    Authors: Lorraine Cafuir, David Lawson, Nilesh Desai, Vita Kesner and Alfredo Voloschin

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:11

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  38. Content type: Case report

    The assessment of tumor size by RECIST using CT scans and MRIs is considered to be standard of care for staging cancer patients. Despite radiologic evidence of widespread disease, we document for the first tim...

    Authors: Stefan Schliep, Abbas Agaimy, Alexander Cavallaro, Franklin Kiesewetter, Gerold Schuler and Lucie Heinzerling

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:2

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  39. Content type: Case report

    Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) has been reported after immunologic manipulations, most often through therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. To our knowledge, CRS after radiation therapy (RT) for cancer has not be...

    Authors: Christopher A. Barker, Samuel K. Kim, Sadna Budhu, Konstantina Matsoukas, Anthony F. Daniyan and Sandra P. D’Angelo

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2018 6:1

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  40. Content type: Case report

    There has been a significant improvement in survival of advanced malignancies with the advent of checkpoint inhibitors. These newer treatment modalities come with a wide spectrum of unique side effects, termed...

    Authors: Pouyan N. Changizzadeh, Shiva Kumar R. Mukkamalla and Vincent A. Armenio

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:97

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  41. Content type: Case report

    Severe myocarditis associated with electrical conduction abnormalities and occasionally heart failure has been well documented following treatment with immune checkpoint blockade with an estimated incidence of...

    Authors: Timothy G. Norwood, Brian C. Westbrook, Douglas B. Johnson, Silvio H. Litovsky, Nina L. Terry, Svetlana B. McKee, Alan S. Gertler, Javid J. Moslehi and Robert M. Conry

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:91

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  42. Content type: Case report

    Metastatic gastric cancer (GC) is an incurable and aggressive disease with a poor prognosis. Immunotherapy is an attractive approach for treating patients with cancer, and studies using immunotherapy have show...

    Authors: Gustavo dos Santos Fernandes, Daniel da Motta Girardi, Luiza Dib Batista Bugiato Faria, João Paulo Giacomini Bernardes and Renata de Almeida Coudry

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:84

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  43. Content type: Case report

    Large cell neuroendocrine tumor (LCNEC) of the lung is a rare and aggressive tumor similar to small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Thus, it is often treated similarly to SCLC in the front-line setting with a platinu...

    Authors: Victoria E. Wang, Anatoly Urisman, Lee Albacker, Siraj Ali, Vincent Miller, Rahul Aggarwal and David Jablons

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:75

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  44. Content type: Case report

    Monoclonal antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis have gained increasing attention across many solid tumors and hematologic malignancies due to their efficacy and favorable toxicity profile. With more than 1...

    Authors: Dylan J. Martini, Aly-Khan A. Lalani, Dominick Bossé, John A. Steinharter, Lauren C. Harshman, F. Stephen Hodi, Patrick A. Ott and Toni K. Choueiri

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:66

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  45. Content type: Case report

    Renal medullary carcinoma is one of the rarest malignancies arising from the kidney. Despite various aggressive therapeutic regimens, mortality remains significantly high (95%) with a median overall survival o...

    Authors: Quaovi Sodji, Kandy Klein, Kavuri Sravan and Jigarkumar Parikh

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:62

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  46. Content type: Case report

    The tumor microenvironment often polarizes infiltrating macrophages towards a type 2, or M2 phenotype, that is characterized by expression of various cysteine-rich, scavenger receptors, including CD163. The pr...

    Authors: Michael C. Topf, Madalina Tuluc, Larry A. Harshyne and Adam Luginbuhl

    Citation: Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2017 5:60

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