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Combination immunotherapy with oncolytic vaccinia virus and checkpoint inhibitor following local tumor irradiation
© Kohrt et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Published: 6 November 2014
Our findings are the first to demonstrate the potential of combination immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses and checkpoint inhibitors in hematologic malignancies. The antitumor activity is attributed to the induction of an effective and specific immune response. This finding is corroborated by the significant infiltration with mature activated NK cells, followed by CD8+ T cells, in both treated and untreated tumors. Importantly, the tumor-specific CD8+ T cells showing a memory phenotype (CD44hi) suggest the effective induction of a potent immune memory response. Effective targeting of distant metastases after intratumoral administration is also an important finding with significant clinical implications. This novel combination immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses and checkpoint inhibitors following local tumor irradiation is now being translated to a Phase I proof-of-concept clinical trial in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at our institution.
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.